Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/86

Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
homeostasis
process used to keep a stable internal environment
environment
What are the five (5) characteristics of all living things?
1. homeostasis
2. reproduction
3. heredity
4. cellular organization
5. metabolism
metabolism
biochemical reactions to make or break down molecules
reactions
reproduction
process by which living things have offspring
heredity
passing on genetic information (DNA)
What does cellular organization mean?
All living things are made up of 1 or more cells.
element
building block of nature/matter
atom
smallest unit of an element, still having the element's properties
compound
a substance made up of two or more elements
example: H20 (water)
molecule
the smallest unit of a compound
Central dogma
DNA ---> mRNA ---> protein ---> work
protein
machine parts of the cell
DNA
genetic information= books in the library of all protein recipe
gene
part of DNA that codes for a protein = 1 protein recipe
mRNA
1 copy of 1 gene
centrioles
help organize fibers, especially during cell division
nucleus
serves as storage space for DNA; membrane bound area in the center of the cell
Mitochondria
the "powerhouse" of the cell; an organelle which makes energy in the form of ATP from carbohydrates (eg. glucose=sugar)
vacuoles
Fluid filled spaces surrounded by membrane, they function in digestion storage, support, and water balance.
golgi apparatus
an organelle which packages and processes proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum
materials travel along it through the cell
ribosomes
small protein-making structures; they can be free-floating or they can be attached to the ER
transcription
the process for copying information from DNA to mRNA
making a copy
translation
the process used for building a protein using mRNA as the blueprint
building
membrane protein
allows molecules in + out of the cell
cytoskeleton
gives structure to the cell-like scafolding
enzymes
- protein molecules which make reactions happen faster by lowering the activation energy

-biological "catalysts"
hydrogen bonds
-a strong bond keeping water molecules stuck together

-also keeps sister strands of DNA together
hydrophilic
easly dissolved in water; attracted to water molecules

(eg. alcohol)
(alcohol)
hydrophobic
dosen't dissolve in water (eg. oil)
What molecules make up most of a cell membrane?
phospholipids
phospholipids
molecule that is both hydrophobic + hydrophilic; makes up the cell membrane
lipid
fat, oil
What is the purpose of ATP?
ATP is the basic energy unit of cells. ATP is made by the mitochondria.
macromolecules
very large molecules (eg. DNA, proteins, polysaccharides)
osmosis
the flow of water from area of low concentration to high concentration
solution
a mixture of 2 or more substances that can be separated by physical means (eg. Kool Aid drink)
solute
the less abundant substance in a solution (eg. Kool Aid powder)
solvent
the more abundant substance in a solution (eg. water in Kool Aid)
diffusion
the flow of particles (solute) from areas of high concentration to low concentration
permeable
able to allow things to pass in and out
simple diffusion
particles go in/out of cell through the membrane from high concentration to low concentration areas
facilitated diffusion
diffusion using a helper/carrier protein
concentration gradient
difference is concentration between 2 areas

-in diffusion solutes move down the concentration gradient

-in active transport, solutes move up the concentration gradient
receptors
a signaling molecule made of protein
endocytosis
large particles come in
exocytosis
large particles go out
activation energy
the energy reguired to make a reaction go forward
What are building blocks of DNA and mRNA?
nucleotides
What are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
What are the building blocks of polysaccharides?
monosaccharides
"poly" means many
"mono" means one
"saccharide" means sugar
What are building blocks of lipids?
fatty acids, glycerol
What are the 4 important macromolecules in the cell?
1. DNA, mRNA (also known as nucleic acids)
2. protein
3. polysaccharide
4. lipids
What are the different uses for proteins?
1. carriers or channels: allow things in and out of cell
2. enzymes: speed up reactions
3. cytoskeleton: gives structure to the cell
4. fibers: "tracks" for moving things in the cell
5. receptors
What are "organic" molecules?
any molecule containing carbon
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
H2O + CO2 + light ----> carbohydrates + O2
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
carbohydrates + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O + ATP
animals eat food to make energy
what are the 2 steps of photosynthesis
light reaction

dark cycle (calvin cycle)
What are the products of the light cycle in photosynthesis?
-make ATP

-make NADPH (electron carrier)
2 important products
What is the purpose of the dark cycle (Calvin Cycle) in photosynthesis?
-makes carbohydrates using ATP, NADPH, and CO2
What are the 2 main pathways that make up aerobic respiration? ("aerobic" = using air or O2)
1) glycolysis
2) oxidative respiration
What happens at the end of glycolysis in an organism when no air (O2) is available?
fermentation
What are the products of fermentation?
1) in animals: lactic acid
2) in yeast: ethanol
think animals (pain after working out) vs. yeast (wine, beer...)
How much energy does glycolysis produce from one glucose (sugar) molecule?
2 ATP
How much energy does oxidative respiration (O2 IS available) produce from one glucose (sugar) molecule?
34 ATP
What are the main reactants and products of glycolysis?
1 glucose + 2 NAD+ --> 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH
Why does fermentation occur?
To unload NADH, the electron carrier.
What are the two steps in oxidative respiration?
1) krebs cycle
2) electron transport chain
Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?
cytosol or cytoplasm
Where does oxidative respiration occur in the cell?
in the mitochondria
karyotype
an image created by squashing chromosomes during cell difision It is a picture of all chromosome pairs
histone
a protien used to help organize and coil DNA
Give two more terms used by biology to describe "sugar".
1) carbohydrate
2) saccharide
ribose
sugar used in DNA - part of nucleotide
mitosis
-happens in growth
-process when cell makes an exact copy of itself
meiosis
-part of sexual reproduction
-1 cell divides to form 4 cells with 50% or original DNA
-happens in testes and ovaries to make sperm and eggs
centromere
the part of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are attached
chromatin
all the DNA in the nucleus
sister chromatids
the two copies of DNA that are attached after a chromosome undergoes replication (copying)
glucose
a type of sugar best used for fuel; chemical formula = C6 H12 O6
Why are cells very small?
A small cell has a lot of surface area compared to its volume. This allows lots of nutrients and wastes to travel across the membrane.
allele
version of a gene
trait
physciall characteristic
gamete
sex cell, product of miosis
zygote
fertilized egg, product of 2 gametes joining
fertilization
joining male and female sex cells