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34 Cards in this Set

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Program Cell death
1. Embryology- scientists grow round worms (tiny org.) and study how they turn into an adult
2. Cells that aren't used are told to die by other cells and they obey
3. The cell is engulfed completely
4.ex. Brain cells are connected to other cells below and are overproduced. The ones we don't need die.
Cellulose
The primary material of the plant cell wall.
Chitin
The primary material of a fungus wall.
Golgi
1. packaging of secretions
Why is a cell's DNA important? Name 3 places DNA could be found in a cell.
1. Controls how you make protein.
2. Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts
Leucoplasts
1. stores starch
2. ex. potato
3. stores starch
4. is white
Chlorophyll
1. green pigment that traps light energy
Lysosome
1. suicide bag
2. destroys old cell parts
3. digests food
Peroxisome
1. destroys toxins or poisons that can kill the cell
What are the purposes of glycolipids and glycoproteins on the outside of cell membranes?
1. Their antennas search for hormones that are targeting it in its environment.
2. searches for chemical signals too.
3. allows cells to stick to each other.
4. cell is recognized by antibodies or viruses.
What is the job of hydrophobic pores in a cell membrane?
1. they let fatty things in or anything with a neutral charge
2. they dont let water in
Basal Bodies
1. arrangement of microtubules= 9 triplets
How do hormones and viruses recognize a cell?
1. shapes match- surface structure of glycoproteins.
2. recognize by their surface design
Nucleus
1. control center that houses dns
2. we see dna as a chromosome (double helix) (46) in a cell it has a chromatin shape. dna is the same in all cells
Nuclear membrane
1. keeps DNA in nucleus
2. has holes in it so ribsomes can leave
Nucleolus
1. found in the nucleus
2. contains RNA = creates ribosomes which then go to the cytoplasm
Mitochondria
1. respiration-making energy
2. produces energy
3. requires oxygen
4. inner membrane=cristae- your food goes here and with oxygen it takes the energy and gives it to the cell and it alsm makes a.t.p (energy molecule) this process is called respiration
5. outer membrane
6. it has its own dna to live
Microtubules
1. gives shape to the cell (construction)-scaffolding
2. made of the protien tubulin
3. one part of the cytoskeleton
4. are in spindlefibers, flagella, centrioles, cilia
5. hairs of cells
Cilia
1. arrangement of microtubules= 9 pairs plus 2 singles in the middle
2. tiny hairs
3. propels the cell
4. tries to beat the dirt out but its sometimes gets paralyze by nicotine
Flagella
1. arrangement of microtubules= 9 pairs plus 2 singles
2. long hairs that propel the cell
Spindlefibers
1. form when the cell divides.
2. made up of microtubules that grab chromosomes in their tightly wrapped form and then seperate them.
Centrioles
1. only found in animal cells
2. arrangement of microtubules= 9 triplets
3. when the animal cell divides the two centrioles move to oppos. sides and then play the same role in orienting the split.
Actin filaments
1. pulls the cytoplasm of a cell apart
2. one part of the cytoskeleton
3. made of the protein actin
4. glow green
ER
1. smooth ER destroys toxins that can kill the cell and it makes fatty steroid hormones
2. transport canals
3. stores ribosomes
4. rough er
chloroplasts
1. photosynthesis
2. produces glucose
3. stores sugar
4. is green
5. requires carbon dioxide
6. has its own dna
Chromoplasts
1. contains yellow pigments or any other color except green.
2. stores colors
3. the cell part we see in leaves during autumn
4. contains pigments that can pick up light. the catetenoids pick up wavelengths in order to to turn the energy into food
tonoplasts
1. large vacuoles-fills water but not 100 percent pure
Cell Wall
1. contains cellulose (beta glucose)
2. made up of peptidoglycon=protein and carbohydrate
3. primary=cellulose (soft) secondary= lignin (tough)
4. grows lengthwise
5. there is pectic in between cells (jelly like subs.)
Fungus cells
1. walls are made up of chitin
2. are connected by a hole= cpenocytic
3. holds most of the major cell parts
Eucaryotic vs. procaryotic
1. has a nucleus, ealier type without a nucleus. the dna hangs loose. ex. bacteria-peptidoglycan=lack of structure
Cell membrane
1. is made up of phoshpolipids.
2. forms a barrier that keeps things out of th cell.
3. the pores move around and tell what can travel through (size)Also their environment determines what can travel in and out. for example since protein doesnt mind water, water can probably go throughthe pores (hyrdophobi or phillic)
4. the lipids have antennas on their ends
5. membrane is 60% protein and 40% phos.
6. selectively permeable
7. fluid mosaic model with phos. bilayer, protein, pores, glycolipid/protein antennas for rec by anti,horm, virus, adhesion
8. cholesterol not in bact. membrane
9. membranes proteins can be receptore, enzymes, transporters
Ribosome
1. protein synthesis- by grabbing onto a messenger that come from dna = rna
2. in the cytoplasm
3. makes hemoglobin
4. attached to ER
Connection between rough ER, golgi, cell membrane, and lysosome
1. the rough ER is connected with other parts of the cell b/c of the ribsomes.
2. the ribosomes make protein that is dumped into the ER
3. the ER makes fats or lipids.
4. vesicles are creates and contain fat and protein.
5. vesicles arrive at the golgi of its membrane. the golgi are stackes that transforms things by combining and breaking things down.
6. golgi makes carbo
7. golgi makes glycolipids and glycoproteins
8. gl and gp leave and go to the cell membrane.
OR the golgi can create lysosomes- golgi creates packages of secretions it wants to create something to get it into the environment (enzymes leave golgi and go to cm (amylase in saliva)
plasmodesmata
1. little holes between neighboring plant cells to communicate to other plant cells. the holes are in the cell wall.
2. channels