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50 Cards in this Set

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What do cells do?
1. they make (manufacture) new things
2. they modify things that already exist.
3. they divide and grow.
Major cell components
-cell membranes
-cell cytoplasmic organelles
-cell nucleus
Cell membrane and selective permeability
-size
-electrical charge
-molecular shape
-lipid solubility
How things move across membranes
-passive diffusion
-osmosis
-facilitated diffusion
-active transport
Bulk transport
-exocytosis
-endocytosis
Endocytosis of solids
Phagocytosis(amoeboid motion)
Pinocytosis(ingestion of liquids)
Receptor mediated
Homeostasis
-Water
-Nutrients
-Temperature
Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
blood plasma
DI water
salt water "crenated"
Carbohydrates
Monosaccarides, disaccharides, polysaccharides. regularly converted to lipids.
Proteins
composed of amino acids and are unique in requiring nitrogen in their structure. i.e. collagen, keratin, elastin, actin..
Lipids
contains largest amount of energy. vitamin D, fats, phospholipds, steroids.
Enzymes
-catalysts composed of protein.
-increase rates of reaction up to 1million times.
enzyme specificity
Require very specific condtions to work properly. temperature, pH go into consideration
coenzymes
cofactors
ORGANIC MOLECULE
CHEMICAL COMPOUND
-combines with a certain vitamin or mineral, non protein.
chemicals to know
vitamins- organic molecules essential to metabolism

minerals- inorganic

elements-

organic vs. inorganic-
salts-

role of water-

mixtures vs. compounds-
ion
a charged particle having either a positive or a negative charge
isotopes
protons and neutrons have different numbers
Kinds of bonds
Covalent Bonds: polar & non polar i.e. equally shared, unequally shared.

Ionic: + & - bonding

hydrogen bonds: weakest kind of bonding
pH scale
-measures H+ concentration of fluid
Logarithmic Scale
0----------7-----------14
highest H+ Lowest H+

- change of 1 on scale means 10x change in H+ concentration
Acids & Bases
- Donate H+ when dissolved in water/ Acidic solution have pH less than 7

- Accept H+ when dissolved in water/ (alkaline or basic) solutions have pH greater than 7
acidosis & alkalosis
excess H+ (low pH)

excess OH- (high pH)
proteins functions
-structural proteins
-contractile proteins- movement
-buffering: regulation of pH
-metabolic regulation
-enzymes- metabolic regulation
-hormones- coordination and control
-antibodies- defense
homeostatic regulatory mechanism
receptor- senses change in system

control center- recieved afferently from receptor and sent efferently towards the effector.
epithelial cells are avascular.
TRUE
four kinds of tissues
epithelia
connective tissue
muscle
nerve
glandular epithelium types
merocrine- most glands
apocrine- mammary glands
holocrin- oil glands of epidermis
where do secretions go when released from glands?
into ducts or onto surfaces=exocrine

into tissue fluids and ultimately into blood= endocrine
embryonic CT
mesenchyme
types of CT
collagenous
elastic
areolar
regular and irregular
dense and loose
where do fibers come from?
fibroblasts & cartilage
cells that make up fibers are:
chondrocytes and chondroblasts
dense fibrous membrane that borders cartilage
perichondrium
3 types of cartilage
hyaline- clear, joints, skeletons

fibro-cartilage: intervertebral disks, very resilient and tough.

Elastic- type of F.C., but very elastic. i.e., external ear(penna)
Bone Cells
osteocytes=maintain metabolism of bone

osteoblasts= bone formation

osteoclasts=remove bone tissue
adipose cells
adipocytes
histological technique
paraffin technique or microtechnique
where do fibers come from?
fibroblasts
3 arrangements of elastic fibers
elastic fibers, elastic network, and most advanced is elastic membrane
adipose cells have?
large vacuoles that push the nucleus to the side
the main mineral in bone
calcium phosphate
sugar and oil are hydro...
hydrophilic- sugar; dissolves

hydrophobic- oil; does not dissolve
water can absorb much heat before its temperature rises
TRUE; because heat disrupts the hydrogen bonding rather than causing movement of the molecules
water sticks to non-water, this is called.
adhesion
ionic bonds being pulled apart to become free and separate ions
Ionization
surface tension
more molecules per area making the water more dense towards the surface.
cell membranes
a critical interface with the cells environment
3 kinds of transport
simple diffusion: move down their concentration gradient through the phospholipid bilayer

facilitated diffusion: materials move along a concentration gradient and by a transport protein.

active transport: proteins actually move materials through the membrane against a gradient
endocytosis:

pinocytosis

phagocytosis
literally cell drinking; solutes and proteins

literally cell eating; pieces of dead cells and or cell pieces or bacteria
exocytosis
where membrane bound vesicles are pushed out of the cell to arive in the extracellular spaces