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65 Cards in this Set

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______ makes carbohydrates into Atp (conerts) Is the "Powerhouse of the cell."
mitochandrion
_____ inter connecting bundles of fibers that give a cell it's shape. "Tent poles of cells.
cytoskeleton
_______small tubes
microtubles
_____give cells their shape.
microfiloments
some cytoskeletial movements are involved in ___________.
locomotion movement
________short, hairlike structures that beat or roll to move a cell or move substances by a cell.
cilia
_______long, whiplike, organ of mobility
flagellum
________organelle where photosynthesis occurs.
chloroplast.
_______stacks of sacks. contains pigments or colored molecules.
thyllakoid membrane
_________big sack
central vacuole
_______the process of using the sun's energy to produce sugar (carbohydrates) from CO2 in the air.
photsynthesis.
What organisms photosynthesize.
photosynthsiers
producers
autotrophs
________a self feeder makes own food
autotroph
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
12 H20 + 6 co2 _____6O2 + C6H12O6 +6 H20
_______occurs in the Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast. Occur only in light.
Light depenendent reaction
______pigments that absorb wavelengths of sunlight
light dependent
_______portion of wavelengths that we can see.
visible spectrum
What are the colors in the visible spectrum?
ROYBIV red, orange, yellow, blue, indigo, violet
________taken in
absorb
______bounced off
reflect
________colored molecules
pigments
What is the main pigment?
chlorphyll
What color is chlorphyll?
green
What are some accessory pigments?
xanthophil-yellow
caretenoids- orange
The trapped sun's energy will cause an ____ from the pigments to become excitied.
electron
________accepts the electron
electron acceptor
______a series of proteins in a membrane that allows ATP to be made.
electron transport
_______group of pigments
photosystem
_____splitting of water molecules by light.
photolysis
__________is produced and released in the early steps of the light dependent reactions of photsynthesis.
Oxygen gas
The oxygen we breath is released from a ________________.
water molecule
__________ occurs in the stroma of chloroplast.
Light independent reactions
carbon dioxide is going to enter a leaf through the opening in the leaf cell called ________.
stomates
Stomates are surronded by________.
guard cells
The _______&________ formed in the light depenent reactions are used to make CO2 into sugar or carbohydrates.
NADPH & ATP
Where does the Calvin Benson cycle take place?
Light dependent reaction
__________is a typical type of photosynthesis
C3
____________ has four carbon intimediate. Uses different enzymes than C3. Is effective at higher temperature.
Difference in plant anatomy.
C4 photosynthesis
_________ is a type of photosynthesis in cacti. Cacti are adapted to conserve H2O. The Cacti only open stomates at night. They have modified leaves.
CAM photosynthesis
_________pathways that convert carbohydrates into Atp.
energy releasing pathways
______(cellular respiration) Occurs in the mitochandria. Is an energy releasing pathway that requires oxygen. Generates 36 ATPs.
Aerobic respiration
______ is completed w/out oxygen. Has alcoholic fermentation. Latic Acid fermentation. Generates 2 ATP's.
Anaerobic respiration
What is the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
glycloysis
__________ occurs in the cytoplasm.
glycolysis
________ (kerb's cycle)
aerobic respiration.
In aerobic respiration __________is converted into pyruvate in cytoplasm (glycolysis). The _______ enters the mitochondrion and is made into ATP.
carbohydrate, Pyruvate
________includes all organisms, plants, fungi, and animals.
aerobic respiration
_________movement of bulky substances through membrane. The substance will be contained in a vesicle.
endocytosis
__________movement of bulky substance out of cell. reverse of endocytosis.
exocytosis
_________type of endocytosis where a large cell (Amoebia) engulfs a virus or bacteria for food or to destroy.
Phagocytosis
__________where liquid is moved into the cell.
Pinocytosis
__________these contain special structures that carry out specific functions = organelle.
Eukaryotic cell
_______sack that holds DNA
Nucleus
__________double membrane
nuclear enevelope
_________holes in the membrane molecules can move in and out.
nuclear pores
________chromosome molecules of heredity
DNA
___________where protein and RNA subunits are assembled. Site of ribosome synthesis. where ribosomes are made.
nucleolus
________site of protein synthesis. Made of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) has two subunits, can read genetic code, and assemble proteins.
ribosome
_______pathway through cell.
cytomembrane system
_______membrane begins at nucleus and curves through the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic system (E.R.)
________-covered in ribosomes looks bumby. Making of proteins that are used elsewhere.
rough e.r.
________not covered in ribosomes. place where lipids are made site of lipid synthesis.
smooth e.r.
_________flattened inter connecting sacks. Have vesicles.
golgi bodies.
________sorts and modifies lipids and proteins then packages them into a vesicle and sends it elsewhere.
golgi bodies
__________A special vesicle. Contains powerful digestive enzymes that can destroy the cell. "suicide sacks. destroys pathogen (disease causing organisms) cellular recycling.
lysosome