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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Fungi?
-No Chlorophyll
-No Macrmolecules from CO2
-Mostly complex multicellular
-Break down organic compounds (Saprobes)
-Almost all plants have a symbiotic relations
Form and Function of Fungi
-Single-Cell (yeast)
-Multicellular fungi include hyphae, mycelium, and chitin
-exist mainly underground
-largest living organism
tubular cell walls surrounding the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cells
fungal hypahe interwoven mass that surrounds and inflitrates the material on which the fungus feeds
generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell
consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass containing hundreds or thousands of nuclei
(similar to slime molds)
Nutrition of Fungi
-Fungus-trap: ringlike structures that hook prey (Nematode)
-Hyphaes digest prey and inject digestive enzymes
-Haustoria can be parasitic or mutualistic (mycorrhizae)
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex
Endomycorrhizal Fungi
extend their hypahe through the root cell wall and into the tubes formed by invagination
Asexual Reproduction of Fungi
-Produce large portions of spores
-Molds grow rapidly as mycelia and produce spores but can reproduce sexually
-Yeasts 'bud' and can also grow filamentous mycelia (no known sexual stage)
Sexual Reproduction of Fungi
-Mostly haploid cells (sporangium) and only diploid throughout the sexual life cycle
-Pheromones are released, plasmogamy (cytoplasm fusion), heterokaryon (nucleic fusion), two haploids pair off (dikaryotic), then the two haploid cells fuse to make a diploid cell (karyogamy), meiosis restores diploid position
Evolutionary Relationships with Plants
-Members of same clade as plants and animals (Opisthokonts)
-Facilitated plant movement to land
- Earliest fossils (plants) have mycorrhizae
-1.5 BYA shared flagellated single cell ancestor
Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)
-Inhabit lakes and soil
-Saprobes, parasites
-diverged earliest in fungal evolution
-Chitin cell walls
-Zoospores (flagellated spores) held within sporangium
-750 species
-About 1000 known
-fast growing molds associated with fruits
-Parasites, Saprobes, or symbionts
-Horizontal hyphae spread out over food, penetrate it and absorb it.
-Septa and Coencytic found in reproductive areas
-Asexual reporduction (black bulbous sporangia)
-Pilobolus aim sporangia
-Plasmogoamy produces zygosporangium
-32,000 species
-Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
-sexual spores produced in asci (sac fungi)
-bear sexual stages in ascocarps (fruiting bodies)
-important saporbes and have symbiotic relationship with green algae and cyanobacteria
-Conidia (asexual spores)
-30000 species
-Molds and plant parasites (rusts and smuts)
-Club Fungus
-best at decomposing lignin
-reproduce sexually with basidiocarps that produce basidiospores
-Exist as mycelia most of their lives
-Basidiospores produce on the gills of the basidio cap
-Decomposers, symbionts, pathogens, economics
-Symbionts: Leaf cutter ant
-Lichen: mutualism between fungus (mycobiont) and algae (phytobiont)
-get food from photobiont
-each fungus/alga combination yeilds unique form
-can grow separately (rare)
-withstand desiccation but not pollution
-Plant parasites
-pencillium and antibiotics
Algae and Plant
-Charophyceans are the closest relatives to plants
-Cell walls made of cellulose
-Chlorophyll a & b
-Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis, peroxisome enzymes, structure of flagellated sperm, formation of phragmoplast
Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
arrays of proteins in the plasma membrane that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell wall
Peroxisome Enzymes
enzymes that help minimize the loss of organic products as a result of photorespiration
Formation of a phragmoplast
the synthesis of new cross-walls during cell division involves the formation of an alignment of cytoskeletal elements and golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of the dividing cell
Terrestrial Adaptations
-Cuticle-epidermal polymers that act as waterproofing
-Sporopollenin (a durable polymer that prevents zygotes from drying out
-Provides pollen grains with species specific morphology
Five Key Plant Traits
-Apical Meristems
-alternation of generations
-walled spores produced in sporangia
-multicellular gametangia
-multicellular, dependent embryos
Apical Mersitem
localized regions of the cell division at the tips of shoots and roots
Alteration of Generations
the life cycles of all land plants alternate between two different mulitcellular bodies, with each form producing each other
muliticellular organs that produce plant spores. Contain diploid cells called sporocytes
Multicellular Gametangia
the archcegonia (vase shaped organ that produces a single egg retained within the base of the organ) and the antheridia which produce and release sperm into the environment
Placental transfer cells
sometimes present in the adjacent maternal tissue as well which enhance the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo through elaborate ingrowths of the wall surface
-Gametophyte is the dominant stage
-Anteridia and Archegonia present
-SPorophyte grows from Archegonium
-Dependent on water for reproduction
-lack of vascular tissue limits size
-Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses
germinating moss spores characteristically produce a mass of green, branched, one-cell thick filaments
anchors for mosses that are long, tubular single cells or filaments of cells that are not composed of tissues and do not play a primary role in absorption of minerals and water
Foot, Seta, and Capsule
Foot: absorbs nutrients from gametophyte
Seta: or stalk conducts these materials to the sporangium
Capsule: Sporangium
What are vascular plants?
-Vascular tissue-cells from tubes to transport H2O and nutrients
-Alternative size constraints
-Sporphylls (modified leaves that bear sporangia)
conducts most of teh water and minerals; includes tracheids that are tube-shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from roots
Life Cycles of Vascular Plants
the sporophyte (diploid) generation is the larger and more complex plant in the alternation of generations
living sugar-conducting cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products; cells are strengthened by the phenolic polymer lignin
small usually spine-shaped leaves with a single vein
Leaves with highly branched vascular system.
Seedless Plants
Lycophytes: club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts (contain strobili)
Pterophytes: ferns, horsetails, wiskferns
Modified leaves that bear sporangia
Sori: fern sporophylls that produce clusters usually on the undersides of the sporophylls
Strobili: in lycophytes and in most gymnosperms, groups of sporophylls form cones
Integuments: envelop and protect the megasporangium (ovule)
Pollen: contains the male gametophytes
-'naked' seeds that are not enclosed in ovaries
-have strobili
-cone bearing plants (conifers)
-evolved from progymnosperms (seedless vascular plants)
Three Key reproductive adaptations of Gymnosperms
-the increasing dominance of the sporophyte generation
-the advent of the seed as a resistant, dispersible stage in the life cycle
-the evolution of pollen as an airborne agent
-Seed plants teh produce reporductive structures (flowers and fruits)
-contain sepals, petals, stamens filaments, anther, carpel, stigma, style, and ovary
Male organs of Angiosperms
-Anther: pollen produced here
-Filaments: stalk leading to the anther
Female organs of Angiosperms
Stigma: sticky tip of the carpel that receives pollen
Style: leads to the ovary
Ovary: contains one or more ovules
Fruiting Bodies
-pericarp: thickened wall of the fruit
What are Animals?
-Animals: Heterotrophic eukaryotes (internal digestion)
-Unique tissues: muscle and nervous
-lack cell walls
-Structural support provided by collagen
-tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes
Cambrian Explosion
-Increase in atmospheric O2
-Diversfying selection (new predator-prey interactions)
-Hox Genes
Animal Development
-Zygote undergoes cleavage: forms hollow ball (blastula)
-Blastula then develops into gastrula
-Lining of gastrula: endoderm, exterior cells, exoderm
Hox Genes
-Development of body plan depends on regulatory genes
-Highly conserved across all animals
-Gene duplications provide greater anatomical complexity
-Small mutation lead to big changes in form
Radial Symmetry: cut in half
Bilateral Symmetry: one way to cut animal
Body Cavities
Coelom: a fluid filled cavity separated digestive tract from wall and surrounded by mesoderm.
Protostome and Deuterostom(cnidarians and chordates)
-Porifera are assymetrical, no true tissue, body is a sac with pores
-Suspension feeders
-Spicules (calcium carbonate or silica)
-cell types: choanocytes, porocytes, epidermic, amoebocytes
-2 cell layers separated by gelatinous mesohyl
-Polyp and medusa
-Gastrovascular Cavity
-Radial symmetry
-Cnidos: stnging nettle
-Comb Jellies
-Eight combs radially arranged
-Turbellaria, Mongenea, Trematoda, Cestoda
-Flat Worms
-Incomplete gut
-No circulatory system
-bilateral, triblastic, acoelmate
-Marine flat worms
-Sexual conflict (penis fencing)
Monogenea and Trematoda
-Suckers attach to internal organs
-Mongenea: fish ecto-parasites
-Parasites (mostly vertebrates)
-Scolex attaches to intestinal lining
-Each segment termed a porglottid (house sex organs)
-Nutrients absorbed over body length
-Ailmentary canal (separate mouth and anus)
-Most aquatic ans free-living
-corona-ciliated discs (used for feeding)
-Parthengenetic (produce non-feeding males)
-Round worms (nonsegmented)
-Tough outter cuticle
-muscles cords are longitudinal
-dioecious with internal fertilization
-some are parasitic
-complete gut
-no circulatory system
-Proboscis or ribbon worms
-Probiscis shoots out to capture prey
-1mm-3mm depending on species
-similiar to flat worms
-Polyplacophora, gastropoda, bivalva, cephalopoda
-snails, clams, octopi
-Body plan contains 3 parts: foot, visceral mass, and mantle
-Many sp secrete CaCO3 shell from mantle
-Range of cephalization and nervous system
Torsion in Gastropoda
-Visceral mass rotated up to 180 degrees; the anus and mantle cavity flipped to be abve the head in adults.
-have spiraled shell
-Tunicates: 'Sea Squirts'
-sessile adults
-filter feeders
-all 4 chordate characteristics only displayed in larval stage
-'Lancelets' translucent fish-like
-use cilia to filter feed
-adults have all 4 chordate characters
Vertebra 'Craniates"
-'Hag fish' (not a fish)
-Cartilaginous skull
-lack jaws and vertebrates
-hox gene duplication
-produce slime
-segmented worms 'little rings'
-Sea, freshwater, and damp soil
-Oligochaetes: bristles, contain chitin
-Polychaeta: Marine, well developed head, tube dwelling and free living
-Hirundinea: flattened body, reduced coelem and segmentation
-Hard exoskeleton, jointed appendages
-open circulatory system