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66 Cards in this Set

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What were the 5 thing necessary for life to form on earth?
1) Some form of Energy
2) Organic Molecules
3) Liquid H2O
4) Concentration
5) Stability
Areas where the conditions of life can occur?
1) Warm tide pools
2) Hydrothermal Vents
3) Subterranean cracks in rocks
Organisms systematic listing of interrelationships is arranged how?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
The naming of things?
Taxonomy
Related groups are called?
Systematics
Evolutionary Interrelationships are called?
Phylogeny
A phylogenetic map is called?
Cladogram
What is the 3 domain system
1) Bacteria
2) Archae
3) Eukarya
Prokaryotes with peptidogylcan and unique genetic structures?
D. Bacteria
What are the 6 groups within Bacteria?
1) Spirochaetes
2) Chlamydias- parasites
3) Cyanobacteria- chlorophyl
4) Gram positive
5) Gram negative
6) Protobacteria
Prokaryotes with peptidogyclen usually in the cell wall and has a unique genome?
Domain Bacteria
What detects peptidogylcan with iodine via binding to peptidogylcan?
Gram Stain
- if (+) it responds to gram stain turns purple
- if (-) doesn't turn purple due to extra lipid layer
Internal parasites within other cells that can be dangerous pathogens such as STD's?
Chlamydias
Largest, most diverse group of bacteria- some are pathogens, others are endosymbionts or free living: Escherchia coli, Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae?
Proteobacteria
Prokaryotes with out peptidoglycan, they have different genetics, and unique lipids?
Domain Archae
They love extreme environments such as thermophiles, halophiles, and methanophiles?
Archae
Extreme environment such as a hot spring, vents- temp loving?
Thermophiles
Extremely salty environment?
Halophiles
An extremely non oxygen environment such as swamps, cow and termite guts?
Methanophiles
Large cells, complex internal organelle, DNA -> multiple chromosome and histone protein support, Evolutionary potential?
Domain Eukarya
Who came up with the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes?
Lynn Margalis
Simple circular chromosomes such as mitochondria and chloroplast =?
Modified Prokaryotes
How old is the earth?
3.85 bya
Includes dinoflagellates (Photosynthetic), Apicomplexa (Parasite- malaria), and Ciliates (Paramecia)?
Clade Aveolata
Is a variable group, photosynthetic, chlorophyll-a, and accessory pigments
Clade Stramenophila
Brown Algae? Diatoms?
Phaeophyta
Silicon shell, great fossils, stratographic markers, great filter material, diatomaceous earth, D.E. Filter
Diatoms/ Brown Algae/ Phaeophyta
Red Algae?
Rhodophyta
Alternating generations, in which the sporophytes and gametophytes look alike? Multicellular, photosynthetic, and have alternating generations?
Clade Rhodophyta (Red Algae)
Have a defense: Calcareon skeleton, produce agar- bacterial medium, and are carrageenan -> used in pudding
Isomorphic Generation, (Red algae)
Contain chlorophyll-a, single cells -> filaments -> balls -> Ancestor to Kingdom Plantae
Chlorophyta
Amoeba- enteric disease belong to which clade?
Clade Phizopoda
The process by which amoeba eat by putting their body around the substance they are trying to eat?
Phagocytosis
Include single celled plankton and spiral cells
Clade Foraminifera "Forams"
What is the most advanced green algae?
Charophyte
Aquatic specialized regions of the thallus, closest living relative to the terrestrial plants- share common ancestor?
Chara
What are the pre adaptations to living in marsh environments?
- drying out
- dessigation
1) waxy cuticle
2) stomata- pores through cuticle - CO2 in O2 out
Adaptations for moving onto land?
1) Evolution of vascular system
- transport H2O/ food through plant
- plants get bigger
2) Seeds- break plants away from wet environment
3) Flower- very complex reproductive structure animal/plants -> coevolution
Green Algae?
Clade chlorophyta, Kingdom Plantae
Phylum Bryophyta, wax cuticle/stomata, no vascular tissue, small alternation of generation?
Kingdom Plantae
Mosses?
Phylum Bryophyta
Liver Warts?
Phylum Hapatophyta
Like mosses, tracheophyte, plants get taller, specialization- root, cell walls for support, and leaves?
Phylum Hapatophyta (Liver Warts)
All plants w/ vascular tissue = xylem- H20 and nutrients and Phloem- food/sucrose?
Tracheophyte
Club mosses?
Phylum Lycophyta
Club mosses, now- small, epiphytes, ancient time - 30- 40 m tall?
Phylum Lycophyta
Ferns?
Phylum Pteridophyte
12,000 existent living species, wet environment sperm swimming to egg?
Phylum Pteridophyte (ferns)
Embryo + nutrients in a protective coat=?
Seed
What is sperm transported to other plants?
Pollen
Naked seed, no "ovary" that surrounds embryo, wind pollinated?
Gymnopserm
Palm- like, king sago palm, dinosaur era?
Phylum Cycadophyta
Ginko (gymnosperm), "ginko biloba"?
Phylum Gingkophyta
Coniferophyta, pines, firs, yew, christmas trees, 550 species, leaves ->needles, wind blown pollen, red wood 300ft, bristle pine 45000 years old?
Phylum pinophyta
Needles are a type of?
Leaf
Counting of tree rings?
Dendrochronology
The study of pollen?
Palynology
Can be used to treat ovarian cancer, taxul, synthesized in the lab?
Pacific yew
Was thought to have died out 60 mya, can be found in Australia, is a living fossil?
Wollemr Pine
130 mya, 270,000 species + many more, seed inside ovary, Why so many? Coevolution with animals, Wind pollinated, attracts animals, nectar- bees, birds, bats, and mammals
Flowering plants
Flowering plants?
Phylum angiosperm
What are the two different groups of plants?
1) monocot
2) dicot
Parallel leaf veins?
Monocot
Scattered leaf veins?
Dicot
Single part seed?
Monocot
Two part seed?
Dicot