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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter
any that occupies space
Element
Matter composed of atoms of only one kind
Atom
smallest particles into which an element can be divided useing convetional chemical means; oxygen (O) for example
Neutron
subatomic particle containing no charge
Proton
subatomic particle containing positive electrical charge
Electron
subatomic particle containing a negative electrical charge
Nucleus
cell organelle containing most of the genetic material of the cell; center of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons
Orbital
region where an electron is most likely to be found
Atomic number
number of protons in an atom
Chemical bonds
outermost electrons are transferred or shared between atoms
Molecule
combination of atoms connected by electrons
Chemical formula
Symbols of the atoms in a molecule plus a subscript denoting the number of each type of atom
Ionic bond
when one atom loses an electron to another, giving the atom less an e- positive and the atom with an extra e- negative
Ions
electrically charged atoms
Covalent bond
when two atoms share a pair of electrons
Polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons making one side of a molecule slightly positive and the other side slightly negative
Hydrogen bond
weak attraction of covalently-bonded molecules to ions; e.g. water molecules have H-bonds with each other
Chemical reaction
process by which atoms or molecules interact to form or break chemical bonds
Synthesis reaction
when two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a new and larger molecule
Decomposition reaction
when larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms
Exchange reaction
combo of decomposition reaction, in which molecules are broken down, and a synthesis reaction, in which the products of the decomposition reaction are combined to form new molecules
What influences the rate of chemical reactions?
Concentration(+concentration, faster reaction); temperature(+temp causes faster reaction); presence of enzyme or catalyst(speeds up reaction)
Catalyst
substance that increases the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds, without itself being permanently changed or depleted
Reversible reaction
reaction can proceed from reactants to products and from products to reactants
Equilibrium
when rate of product formation is equal to rate of reactant formation
Base
Proton acceptor; hydroxide
Acid
Electron acceptor; hydronium
Base
Proton acceptor; hydroxide
Oxidation
loss of an e-, loss of a H, or gain of an O
Reduction
gain an e-, or gain an H, or lose an O
Salt
molecule consisting of a positive ion other than H+ and a negative ion other than OH-; e.g. hydrochloric acid: HCL + NaOH -> NaCL + H2O
Buffer
chemical that resists changes in pH when either an acid or a base is added to a solution containing the buffer
Hydrophobic forces
non-polar molecules repell water
Dissociation
the separation of substances, such as acids, bases, and salts when dissolved in water
Organic molecules
contain carbon
Inorganic molecules
all other molecules NOT containing carbon; some exceptions, e.g. CO2
Carbon Functional Groups: Alkane
hydrocarbon containing C and H only; ethane, methane; free to rotate
Carbon Functional Groups: Alkene
At least one double bonded C; ending: ene; not free to rotate; isomers possible; hydrocarbons and nonpolar
Carbon Functional Groups: Alcohols
hydroxyl group; soluble in water; slightly polar; sugars; secondary carbon in middle
Carbon Functional Groups: (family) Aldehydes
Carbonyl functional group; carbonyl on end; polar, hydrophilic
Carbon Functional Groups: Ketone
Carbonyl group; carbonyl on secondary C; polar, hydrophilic
Carbon Functional Groups: Carboxylic acid
COOH on end(carboxyl), weak acids-dissociate and form conjugate base
Carbon Functional Groups: Amines
Amino group (NH2) on end; acts as a base
Carbohydrates
Made of C, H, and O; functions: energy and ID
Monosaccharides
simple sugars, -ose endings
What are the functions of Carbohydrates?
Energy and Identification
What are the functions of lipids?
Energy(limited), structure(cell membranes), and regulation(hormones)
What are the functions of proteins?
Regulation, structure, energy, contraction, transport, and protection
What are the functions of nucleic acids?
Regulation, heredity, and protein synthesis
What does a ribose molecule look like?
OH- O
l/ \-OH
H- \_/
/ \
OH OH
What is galactose?
component of disaccharides; ketone
Another name for glucose?
dextrose
what does glucose look like?
--CH2OH
H | __O H
\/OH H\/
/\/__\/\OH
OH/ \
H OH
What are lipids?
substances that dissolve in nonpolar solvents but not polar solvents like water; less oxygen content than carbs
Fats
energy storage molecules; padding and insulation
Glycerol
building block of fat, along with fatty acids; 3C molecule w/ a hydroxyl group attached to each atom
Fatty acids
building blocks of fat; carbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end
Glycerol + Fatty Acid = ?
H2O and a fat molecule
Saturated fat
only single covalent bonds btwn C atoms
Unsaturated fat
fatty acids containing double covalent bonds btwn C atoms
Glycosidic bond
formed by dehydration synthesis reaction(removes H2O molecule); opposite: hydrolysis
Simple lipids include: ?
waxes, fats and oils; protect from invaders
Phospholipid
forms cell membrane; glycerol + phosphate group; phospholipid bilayer
Steroids
Type of lipid; 4 rings, 3rings of 6, 1 ring of 5; cholesterol, adrenocortical hormones, bile salts, sex hormones
Proteins
C, H, O and N; and Sulfur too sometimes; antibodies, catalysts, hemoglobins; bonded together by peptide bonds
Nucleic acid
made up of a phosphate group, sugar and base
Denaturation
H bonds holding protein in specific shape broken, making protein non-functional
Activation Energy
E necessary to start a chemical reaction