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43 Cards in this Set

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What is the Cell Theory
1. all living things are made of cells & cell products
2. all cells come from pre-existing cells
3. cells have an evolutionary history
What are the 3 major structures in animal cells?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, and Plasma Membrane
What is the Plasma Membrane made of?
Phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydrates
Globular proteins?
3D, globs
Fibrous proteins
long strands; generally receptors
Transmembranous proteins?
all the way across and embedded in plasma membrane
Peripheral proteins?
on one side of membrane, often attached it integral proteins
Nuclear Envelope
2 phospholipid bilayers
Lumin
center of the nucleus' 2 phospholipid bilayers
What are the major components of the cytoskeleton?
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
Microfilaments
made of actin; like a strand of pearls; aid in cell movement, provide support to microvilli
intermediate filaments
made of keratin; like a cable; mechanical strength
microtubules
made of tubulin; move organelles w/i cell; allows cell to change shape; form cilia and flagella
Centrioles
mitosis; found as a pair at right angles with each other; composed of microtubules(9X3 arrangement)
Basal Body
microtubule composition, base of cilia to help anchor and support
centrosome
non-membranous structure containing the centrioles
Selectively permeable
allows some substances, but not others, to pass into or out of the cell
membrane channels
large protein molecules extending from one surface of the plasma membrane to the other
carrier-mediated processes
when large, polar substances are transported across the plasma membrane
concentration gradient
measure of the difference in the concentration of a solute in a solvent between 2 points
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of higher water concentration to one of lower
osmotic pressure
force required to prevent the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
tight junction
no intercellular space, regulates what goes through cells
desmosomes
intercellular space allows for fluid movement around cells; looks like a button
gap junction
channel can open and close, small ions can move across quickly, communication channel
hypotonic
when there's less solute outside the cell; water moves into cell to balance; lysis
hypertonic
more solute outside cell than inside; water moves out of cell; crenation
isotonic
solute to water ratio equal within cell as well as solvent
Crenation
cell shrinks because water leaves to make concentration the same(in a hypertonic solution)
Lysis
When a cell bursts because it is in a hypotonic solution
Facilitated diffusion
mediated transport process that moves substances into or out of cells from a higher to a lower concentration
filtration
movement of fluid through a partition containing small holes
mediated transport molecules
carrier molecules within the plasma membrane that function to move large, water-soluble molecules or electrically charged molecules across the plasma membrane
Active transport
proteins act as pumps using ATP for energy; moves substances from an area of lower concentration to higher against the concentration gradient
phagocytosis
when solid particles are ingested into a cell
pinocytosis
when cells ingest fluids
gene mutation
permanent change in the sequence of DNA bases
mutagens
radiation, viruses, chemicals
point mutations
one of a few nucleotide bases are changed
frame shift mutation
adds or deletes bases, effects entire sequence
mutagens
radiation, viruses, chemicals
gene
sequence of nucleotides providing a chemical set of instructions for making a specific protein
transcription
when DNA creates mRNA