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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Reasons to test urine
pregnancy, menopause, drugs, diabetes, some cancers, urinary tract infection
Maintaining Extracellular Fluid
keeps proper amount of fluid in a body water gains should=water losses.
Water gains
absorption from gut, metabolism
Water losses
urination, sweating, cell secretion, water in feces
Urinary excretion
the elimination of excess water and solutes in the urine. Additional water evaporates from respiratory surfaces such as those in the lungs.
Components of the Urinary System
Urinary Bladder
constantly filters water and all solutes except proteins from blood; reclaims water and solutes as the body requires and excretes the remainder, as urine.
channel for urine flow from a kidney to the urinary bladder.
Urinary bladder
stretchable container for temporarily storing urine.
channel for urine flow between the urinary bladder and body surface.
at the nephrons that water and solutes are filtered from blood, and the amounts to be reclaimed by the blood are adjusted.

Functional unit of the kidney. Each consists of a renal tubule and associated cappilaries. Millions of nephrons are the functional units of the kidney.
Renal corpuscle
the cup, Bowman's capsule, interacts with the cappillaries as a blood-filtering unit.
Functions of the kidneys
filters water, mineral ions, wastes from the blood. Adjust filtrate concentration & return most to blood. Remaining water & solutes in filtrate constitute urine.
is part of the renal corpuscle
Proximal tubule
tubular region closest to the cup
Loop of Henle
Distal tubule
most distant from the corpule
Collecting duct
nephron's last region. Is part of a duct system that leads to the kidney's central cavity, then into the urethra. filtrate-whatever is passed through kidney filters such as ions, gluclose, and water.
Human Urinary System
vertebrates have a pair of kidneys that continually filter the blood. The body reclaims conserved and adjusted amounts of the filtrate. The kidney excrete excess amounts of water and solutes as a fluid called urine.
Filtered out
120mml of water and small solutes are filtered out and they collect inside Bowman's capsule.
Filtered through the kidneys
180 liters-about 2 are excreted and the rest go back into the body.
Blood flows through...
the renal artery and into glomerular capillaries (1.5 liters)
Glomerular Filtration
a movement of water and small solutes from the glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule.

*Glomerular capillaries have large pores.
Tubular reabsorption
peritubular capillaries reclaim most of the water and sulutes in the proximal tubule.
that are reabsorbed are primarily nutrients and salts
Tubular secretion
secreting tocins and antibiotics some potassium and excess hydrogen ions. Membrane transports proteins in capillary cells move these wastes into intersitial fluid.
Increased Blood pressure
increases glomerus filtration. 1 or 2 liters are excreted. Most filtrate is reabsorbed into blood.
ADH-antidiuretic hormone
acts on distal tubules and collecting ducts, making them more permeable to water. Hypothalamus (signals pituitary gland) controls water secretion to secrete more ADH.
Renal Failure
must use dialysis machine for filter. Both kidneys are damaged to the point where they are nonfunctional. Fatal if not treated. Transplant is only way to fully restore function.
Kidney Disorders
kidney stones-uric acid and calcium salts settle out of urine, from hard deposits that can lodge in ureter and urethra.
Core temperture
Hypothalamus (regulates temp), internal temp of an animal's body, maintained within narrow range of normal enzyme function, heat gains & losses must be kept in balance.
Stages of development
gamete formation
organ formation
growth, tissue specialization
Gamete formation
eggs form and mature in female reproductive organs and sperm form and mature in male reproductive organs.
creates a zygote
by a series of mitotic cell divisions, different daughter cells receive different regions of the egg cytoplasm.
cell divisions migrations and rearrangements produce 2 or 3 primary tissues, the forerunners of specialized tissues and organs.
Organ formation
subpopulations of cells are sculpted into specialized organs and tissues in prescribed spatial patterns at prescribed times.
a steroid hormone, governs the growth, structure, and function of the male reproductive tract as well as the formation of sperm. It triggers development of male and secondary sexual traits, and it stimulates sexual and aggressive behavior.
Three layers of skin
Ectoderm-epidermis, nerves
Mesoderm-muscle & bone
Endoderm-inside of the GI tract
Sexual reproduction
through meiosis, gamete formation
Prostate cancer
2nd leading cause of death in American men.
Detection-digital rectum exam by physician. Blood tests for prostate-specific.
Testicular cancer
self exams, check for hardening lumps
is created in the ovary. ie egg
endometiral lining of the uterus is shed each month if pregnancy does not occur.
occurs in the oviduct
Birth control works by...
prevents ovalation. Trick body into think the woman is pregnant.
Viruses-treatment, no cure
Genital Herpes (Herpes Simplex)
Genital Warts (HPV can cause cervical cancer)
Bacteria-are cures
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoae)
Syphillis (trporema pallidum)
Chlamydial (most common STD in high school and college ages, fast growing)
38 weeks, first 2 weeks for blastocyst, embryotic 3-8 weeks, week 9 to birth are fetal period.
blastocyst attaches to endometrium; begins to secrete HCG hormone.
hormone secreted by the blastocyst can be detected by 3 weeks w/ home pregnancy test.
organ that passes nutrients from mother to child
drugs and environment factors that may produce deformaties
sperm, sex hormone production
sperm maturation site and subsequent storage
Vas deferens
rapid transport of sperm
Ejaculatory duct
conduction of sperm to penis
organ of sexual intercourse
Seminal vesicle
secretion of large part of semen
Prostate gland
secretion of part of semen
Bulbourethral gland
prodctuion of mucus that functions in lubrication
oocyte production and maturation, sex hormone production
ducts for conducting oocyte from ovary to uterus; fertilization normally occurs here
chamber in which new individual develops
secretion of mucus that enhances sperm movement into uterus and (after fertilization) reduces embryo's risk of bacterial infection
organ of sexual intercourse, birth canal
follicular phase
menstuation, endometrium breaks down
follicle matures in ovary; enodmetrium rebuilds (1-5)
oocyte released from ovary (14)
luteal phase
corpus luteum forms, secretes progesterone; the endometrium thickens and develops (15-28)
thick muscle layers of uterus that stretch enormously during pregnancy
small organ responsive to sexual stimulation