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96 Cards in this Set

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Autotrophs
Organisms that produce their own food and energy.
Heterotrophs
Organisms that must consume their food and energy.
Factors that effect enzyme action
temperature of surface area
heterozygous
when 2 of the alleles in a pair are different
double helix
Watson and Crick determined that DNA molecules have this shape
mitosis
division of prokaryotic cells into 2 offspring
Basic shape of DNA
Double Helix
Heterotrophs
Organisms that must consume their food and energy.
3 things that make up the basic units of DNA
1. Sugar molecule
2. Phosphate Group
3. Nitrogenous base
Who was responsible for finding the actual shape of the DNA molecule?
Watson and Crick
DNA Polymearese
The enzyme responsible for adding the appropriate bases to the duplication strand
Homeostasis
The processes used to maintain such bodily equilibrium.
Scientific Method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
spermatogenesis
Formation and development of spermatozoa by meiosis and spermiogenesis.
gamete
A reproductive cell having the haploid number of chromosomes, especially a mature sperm or egg capable of fusing with a gamete of the opposite sex to produce the fertilized egg.
sex cells
A germ cell or gamete.
reduction division
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number
Oogenesis
The formation, development, and maturation of an ovum
tetrad
A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids.
Nondisjunction
The failure of paired chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate and go to different cells during meiosis
genetics
The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited traits among similar or related organisms.
Pea Plants
Pure plant
Gregor Mendel
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics
pure
Plants that always produce the same offspring
Dominant
referring to an allele that masks the presence of another allele for the same characteristics
Recessive
Referring to an allele that is masked by the presence of another allele for the same characteristics
Autotrophs
Organisms that produce their own food and energy.
Heterotrophs
Organisms that must consume their food and energy.
muilticellular
organisms that have cells that are specialized and carry out specific functions.
Asexual Reproduction
involving one parent giving way to two offspring
organism
a living thing with all the characteristics of life
endoplasmic reticulum
Roads around the cell, transport materials
plasma membrane
lipid bi-layer, controls what enters and leaves the cell
Golgi Apparatus
UPS, packaging, shipping material out of the cell
ribosome
Protein Factory
lysosomes
digestion, protect from disease, cell death
mitochondrion
major source of ATP synthesis, Energy
nucleoli
Formation of ribosomes
nucleus
Control center of the cell
centromere
Holds the 2 chromatids together
sex chromosomes
half the chromosome #, sperm and egg cells
homologous
2 copies of each chromosome, identical in shapem size, and info
Karyotype
Photograph depicting the chromosomes in a normal cell
histones
dna wraps around this protein structure
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm
meiosis
production of the sex cells or gametes
diploid
cells with 2 sets of chromosomes, 2n
haploid
half of the chromosomes after duplication occurs
mitosis
division of prokaryotic cells into 2 offspring
clevage furrow
area of the cell membrane that pinches in and seperates the dividing cell
chromatin
thin strands of DNA, less tightly packed
autosomes
all other chromosomes besides the sex cells
cell cycle
repeating set of events that make up the life of the cell
cell wall
forms in plant cells during cytokinesis
dihybrid
cross involving 2 traits, shows possible outcomes of offspring
heredity
transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
P1
parental generation
homozygous
having 2 alleles that are the same for a given trait
allele
Each of several alternative forms of a gene
Law of segregation
Pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes
test cross
Cross used to find the genotype of an unknown individual
phenotype
physical apperance of an organism
genotype
genetic make-up of an organism
F1
First filial, or first generation of offspring
monohybrid
cross involving one trait, shows possible combination of genes in offspring
punnett square
tool used to predict the outcome of different types of crosses
heterozygous
when 2 of the alleles in a pair are different
Law of independent assortment
States that factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently
nucleotide
Building blocks of DNA. A DNA subunit composed of a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar and a nitrogen base
deoxyribose
The five carbo sugars that make up the backbone of DNA
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
hydrogen bonds
hold the nitrogen bases or rungs together in a DNA molecule
translation
The interpreting of mRNA to make proteins
transcription
The copying of DNA moleculs to mRNA
DNA Polymeares
The enzyme that is responsible for replicating molecules of DNA by attaching complementary bases in the correct sequence
helicase
Enzymes that are responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold the complementary strands together
replication
the process in which DNA copies itself
Function of enzymes
break down substrates
what enzyme did we test in the lab
catalase
what was the function of the enzyme
break down H2O2 into H2 + O2
Basic unit of DNA
nucleotide
test cross
Cross used to find the genotype of an unknown individual
phenotype
physical apperance of an organism
genotype
genetic make-up of an organism
F1
First filial, or first generation of offspring
monohybrid
cross involving one trait, shows possible combination of genes in offspring
punnett square
tool used to predict the outcome of different types of crosses
heterozygous
when 2 of the alleles in a pair are different
Law of independent assortment
States that factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently
nucleotide
Building blocks of DNA. A DNA subunit composed of a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar and a nitrogen base
deoxyribose
The five carbo sugars that make up the backbone of DNA
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
hydrogen bonds
hold the nitrogen bases or rungs together in a DNA molecule
translation
The interpreting of mRNA to make proteins
transcription
The copying of DNA moleculs to mRNA
DNA Polymeares
The enzyme that is responsible for replicating molecules of DNA by attaching complementary bases in the correct sequence