Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chromosomes condense only in "blank" cells
Eukaryotes
Regarding Mitosis and Meiosis what does "N" and "C" stand for
N - # of set of chromsome
C - DNA content
In mitosis the division goes from 2N4C ---> "blank"
2N2C
List three things that happen during Prophase
1. DNA condenses into chromosomes
2. nuclear envelope breaks
3. spindle fibers form
Where do kinectocores attach to?
centromeres
What happens during anaphase?
sister chromatids separate. kinectocores use ATP to pull the sister chromatids.
What are kinectocores made out of?
microtubules
What happens during telophase?
List 2 things
1. chromosomes decondense
2. nuclear envelope reforms
During phase I of Meiosis goes from 2N4C --->"blank"
phase II?
phase I - 1N2C
Phase II - 1N1C
When does crossing over occur?
metphase I
List 4 ways to create genetic variation
1. mutation
2. crossing over
3. independent assortment of chromosomes
4. random fertilization
homozygous pair
ex. bb or BB
heterozygous
Bb
Allele
alternative version of a gene
genotype
description of 2 alleles of a gene. ex. Bb, bb
phenotype
descriptino of a trait/expression of gene
dominant
determines phenotype in heterozygotes
recessive
masked in heterozygote
What Mendelian's 1st law?
two alleles for a trait segregate independently

Note: there is no corssing over
What is Mendelian's 2nd law?
law of independent assortment

each "unlinked" pair of alleles segregate into gametes independently
what are linked genes?
genes are on the same chromosome
What is the benefit of using Drosophilas?
list 4
1. short life span
2. small
3. prolific breeders
4. 4 pairs of chromosomes
relationship between distance between genes and # of recombinants
decrease distance between genes, decrease # of recombinants
% recombinant
# of recombinants / total offspring

units in centimorgans
parental type and recombinant type
parental: gene did not switch
recombinant type: gene did switch
3 kinds of genetics problems that can be on test
1. what is genotype or phenotype of parents?
2. what is ratio/probability in offspring?
3. How the genes related?
What are the 4 cases possible for dihybrids?
1. autosomally unlinked
9:3:3:1 raiton in phenotype
2. autosomally linked
3. both x-linked
4. one gene X-linked the other autosomal
Genetic complementation
1. each nutant allele must be recessive to the wild type allele
2. corss homozygous mutant flies
3. if F1 progeny show the wild type phenotype, they complement, are not alleles, are mutations in different genes.
4. F1 progeny show the mutant phenotype, they do not complement, are mutations in the same gene, are alleles
Purine
Guanine and Adenine
two rings
Pyrmidines
Cytosine and Thymine
one ring
How many H bonds beween G and C and how many H bonds between A and T?
3 H bonds for GC
2 H bonds for AT
when does replication occur of cell cycle? Where for prok and euk?
Synthesis phase

Prokaryotes in cytosol
Eukaryotic in nucleus
Helicase
unwinds and unzips DNA
primase
attaches RNA primers
DNA polymerase III
list 3 functions
1. can only synthesize 5'->3'
2. cannot intiate DNA synthesis
3. simultaneously copies both strands
Polymerase I
replaces all RNA with DNA that is in lagging strand
What does DNA ligase do during DNA synth?
makes last phosphodiester linkage
Lagging strand has what type of fragment?
Okazaki
What DNA polymerase II do?
repairs DNA
What is the difference beween thymine and uracil?
thymine has methyl group instead of hydrogen
ribozyme
proteins and RNA complex that catalyzes translation
4 mech to know
1. adding dNTP in DNA replication
2. spliceosome (cut out introns)
3. translation (making polypeptide)
4. making tRNA - amino acid