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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
organelles
A structure with a specialized function within a cell
nonpolar covalent bond
An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons equally b/c the atoms have similar electronegativity
solvent
The dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versatile known solvent.
isotonic
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
pinocytosis
Cellular "drinking"
A type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
facilitated diffusion
The passage of a substance across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins.
organelles
A structure with a specialized function within a cell
nonpolar covalent bond
An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons equally b/c the atoms have similar electronegativity
solvent
The dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versatile known solvent.
isotonic
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
pinocytosis
Cellular "drinking"
A type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.
facilitated diffusion
The passage of a substance across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins.
cytoplasm
Intracellular fluid.
denatured
Destroyed enzymes. Can be caused by changes in pH, or salt [] or by high temp.
Watson & Crick
1962 discoveredthe arrangement of the DNA molecule.
gene
A section of DNA with a particular sequence of bases.
active site
The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches *by means of weak chem. bonds); typically, a pocket on the enzyme's surface.
polar covalent bond
An attraction between atoms that share electrons unequally. The shared electrons are pulled closer to one atom, making it partially negative and the other atom partially postive.
lyse
To cause dissolution or destruction of cells by lysins.
active transport
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its [] gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (ATP)
extracellular fluid
All fluid outside of cells, usually excluding transcellular fluid.
phopholipid
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Chargaff's rules
1/ The amount of A,T,C,G in DNA varies from species to species.
2/In each species the amount of A=T, C=G
mutations
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity.
AIDS
(Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) The late stages of HIV infection, characterized by a reduced # of T cells; usually results in death caused by opportunistic infections.
enzyme
Biological catalysts.
diffusion
The movement of molecules from an area of high [] to an ared of lower [].
crenate
Where the cell decreases in size.
endocytosis
The movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles.
cytosol
The fluid in the cell.
DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
The genetic material & thus it constitutes the molecula basis of inheritances. Stored the info . regarding development, structure & metabolic activites of the cell.
Competitive inhibition
Binds to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate.
mutagens
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
HIV
(Human immunodeficieny virus) the retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and causes AIDS
homeostasis
The steady state of body functioning.
osmosis
The movement of water froma region of high [] to low [] through a semipermeable membrane.
plasma
The liquid matrix of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended.
exocytosis
The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles.
interstitial fluid
Fluid outside cell, not including blood plasma.
receptor-mediated endocytosis
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles. The vesiclescontain proteins with receptor sites specific to the moelcules being taken in.
inhibitor
A chemical that interferes with an enzyme's activity.
noncompetitive inhibition
Changes the shape of the enzyme so that the active site no longer functions.
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template.
bacteriophages
Bacteria virus
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
hypertonic
Higher concentration of solutes
Hypotonic
Lower concentration of solutes
phagocytosis
Cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm.
RNA
(Ribonucleic acid) A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases A,C,G,U; single stranded; functions in protein synthesis.
metabolism
The many chemical rxn's that occur in organisms.