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79 Cards in this Set

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mitosis
process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells. conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
mitotic phase
the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
monohybrid
an organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest.
chiasma
the x shaped microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis.
MPF
(maturation-promoting factor) a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis.
growth factor
a protein that must be present in the extracellular enviornment for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells.
binary fission
type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.
cell cycle control system
cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
checkpoint
a critical control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.
aster
radial array of short microtubles that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in a cell undergoing mitosis.
chromosomes
packaged DNA molecules
thread like gene carrying structure found in the nucleus.
sister chromatid
replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere.
chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes when the cell is not dividing.
kinetochore
specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
centrosome
nonmembraneous organelle that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubules.
telophase
5th stage of mitosis in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.
prometaphase
2nd stage of mitosis in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the spindle microtubles attach tot he kinetochore, nuclear envelope fragments.
prophase
1st stage of mistosis in which chromatin condenses and mitotic spindl forms but nucleus is still intact.
S phase
the synthesis phase of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated.
G2 phase
2nd growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase.
G1 phase
1st growth phase of the cell cycle.
metaphase
3rd phase of mitosis, the spindle is complete and the chromosomes are attached to the microtubules at the kinetochore. they are aligned on the metaphase plate.
anaphase
4th stage of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.
G0 phase
a nondividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle.
Interphase
accounts for 90% of the cell cycle. cell grows and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell division.
cyclin
a regulatory protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically.
cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks)
a protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin.
anchorage dependence
the requirement that to divide a cell must be attached to the substratum.
density dependent inhibition
the phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come in contact with one another.
haploid cell
a cell containing only one set of chromosomes.
diploid cell
a cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes.
somatic cell
ant cell in multi-cellular organisms except a sperm or egg cell.
homologous chromosomes
chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position and staining patternn that possess alleles of the smae genes at corresponding loci.
asexual reproduction
a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into 2 or more parts.
gametes
a haploid cell such as a sperm or egg cell.
malignant tumor
a cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.
benign tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin.
transformation
conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous one.
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
metastasis
the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.
alternations of generations
a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte. characteristic of plants and some algae.
gametophyte
the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
synapsis
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis.
crossing over
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase 1 of meiosis.
tetrad
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of 2 sister chromatids.
recombinant chromosomes
a chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from 2 parents into a single chromosome.
zygote
the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conceptin
gametophyte
the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
synapsis
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis.
crossing over
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase 1 of meiosis.
tetrad
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of 2 sister chromatids.
recombinant chromosomes
a chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from 2 parents into a single chromosome.
zygote
the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conceptin
gametophyte
the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
synapsis
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis.
crossing over
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase 1 of meiosis.
tetrad
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of 2 sister chromatids.
recombinant chromosomes
a chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from 2 parents into a single chromosome.
zygote
the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception
fertilization
the union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
sporophyte
in organisms undergoing alternation of generations the mutlicellular diploid form that results from a union of gametes and that mitotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
codominance
the situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote.
complete dominance
the situation in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and the dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
law of independent assortment
Mendel's seond law stating that each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation.
dihybrid
an organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest. all the offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are dihybrid.
testcross
breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype.
genotype
the genetic makeup or set of alleles of an organism.
Punnett Square
a diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization in genetic crosses.
phenotype
the physical and physiological traits of an organism which are determined by its genetic makeup.
homozygous
having 2 identical alleles for a given gene.
heterozygous
having 2 different alleles for a given gene.
law of segregation
Mendel's 1st law stating that each allele in a pair separates into a different gamete during gamete formation.
recessive allele
an allele whose phenotyic effect is not observed in a heterozygote.
dominant allele
allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
alleles
alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
F2 generation
offspring resulting from interbreeding og the hybrid F1 generation.
F1 generation
the 1st filial or hybrid offspring in a series of genetic crosses.
P generation
the parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance.
hybridization
the mating or crossing of 2 truebreeding varieties.
True-breeding
refer to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self pollinate.