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80 Cards in this Set

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What four elements make up 96% of the human body?
Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)
Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Are the four elements that make up 96% of the human body.
Calcium (Ca), Sulfur (S), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (Ka)
Make up the smaller 4% of the human body.
What are some trace elemetns found in the human body?
Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe)
Iron is considered to be a ________ in the human body?
Trace element
What is an organic compound?
An organic compound contains Carbon (C).
What is an inorganic compound?
An inorganic compound does not contain Carbon (C).
What is the difference between an organic and inorganic compound?
An organic compound contains C and an inorganic compound does not contain C.
True or False. Water is a polar molecule?
True
What type of bonds form between individual water molecules?
H bond (Hydrogen bond)
What does hydrophillic mean?
water loving
What is a compound called when it does not mix with water?
Hydrophobic
True or False. Polar molecules are hydrophobic?
False. Polar molecules are hydrophillic.
What is oil in water an example of?
A Hydrophobic mixture.
What is it called when a molecule "falls apart" in water?
Dissociation in H2O
What is a molecule that releases H+ (protons) in water?
Acid
What is a base?
proton acceptors, and absorb hydrogen ions
What is an alternate name for a base?
alkaline
What is neutral on the pH scale?
7 is neutral
Where does blood fall on the pH scale?
blood is 7.4
If a solution has a pH of 8.2 what is it considered?
increasingly basic or alkaline
What is more acidic, a solution with a pH of 4.0 or a solution with a pH of 5.0?
a soultion with a pH of 4.0 is more acidic.
If one solution has a pH of 10.0 and a second solution has a pH of 12.0 how much stronger/weaker is the second solution?
1/1000 stronger
What are the four major macromolecules in the human body?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid.
What is a molecule that would be defined as a polymer of sugars?
Carbohydrate
What is the major function of carbohydrates?
provide a ready, easily used source of cellular fuel.
A protein is a polymer of what?
amino acids
What is an amino acid composed of?
C, H, O, N, and sometimes S and P
How many amino acids are in the human body?
20
What are the major functions of proteins?
they are the basic structural material of the body, and play vital roles in cell function
What major molecule would an enzyme be?
A protein that makes chemical reactions go faster
What is a nucleic acid?
DNA and RNA
What are nucleotides composed of?
nitrogen containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
What are nucleic acids used for?
DNA and RNA genetic information and provides instructions for building proteins in the body.
RNA is in what major macromolecule group?
nucleic acid
ATP is in what major macromolecule group?
nucleic acid
What major group of macromolecules is an organic compound of the cell that does not mix with water?
Lipids
What major macromolecule is hydrophobic, nonpolar, and greasy?
lipids
Fats are a great way to store?
energy
What is the major function of lipids
protect and insulate and are a major source of stored energy.
What is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms?
Cells
What are the four components of the cell therory?
1. cells are the basic structural and functional units of life
2. the activity of an organism depends on the activities of its cells.
3. The biochemical activities of a cell are dictated by their organelles
4. the continuity of life has a cellular basis
The continuity of life from one gerneration to the next has a _______ basis.
cellular
What is the plasma membrane composed of?
a double layer of phospholipids embedded with small amounts of cholesterol and proteins.
Phosphate head, glycerol backbone, and fatty acid chains are the three components of ________?
Phospholipid bi-layer
What part of a phospholipid is polar?
The phosphate head
The interior of the phospholipid bilayer is polar or non-polar?
Non-polar
How think is the cell membrane?
9nm thick
True or False. The cell membrane is rigid?
False
True or False. The plasma membrane has many associated proteins and sugars?
True
What is another way of saying that something is within the cell membrane?
intracellular
What is the fluid called outside of the cell?
Interstitial fluid
What are small projections on the cell surface that increase surface area for gas exchange?
Microvilli are finger like extensions that increase the surface area
Microvilli increase the surface area of the exposed surface of the cell in order to increase ______?
Gas exchange
What are tight junctions?
A membrane junction where proteins onadjacent cells fuse together to form an impermeable barrier to prevent molecules from passing through.
True or False. Tight junctions form an impassible barrier?
True
What are fibrous proteins that link neighboring cells together?
Desmosomes
Desmosomes strengthen tissue to resist________ stress.
to prevent separation and reduce the chance of tearing when tissue is stressed.
What are a couple differences between desmosomes and tight junctions?
tight junctions form an impermeable barrier/ desmosomes are "rivets" that hold the cells together
What are gap junctions?
are communication junction be that between cells, that allows substances to pass between cells
Where would you find a gap junction?
In electrically excitable tissues
The plasma membrane is selectively_________?
permeable membrane
________ solutes can pass through the cell membrane.
non-polar solutes can pass through the membrane, polar solutes need a protein to pass
What is a way polar solutes can pass through the plasma membrane?
they use a protein to pass through the membrane
What type of transport does not require chemical energy?
Passive processes
True or False. Passive transport uses ATP.
False
How do the words solvent and solute relate to each other?
a solvent is a liquid and solute are particles that dissolve in a liquid
What is entropy?
= randomness kinetic energy causes molecules to scatter
True or False. In diffusion, compounds move up the concentration gradient.
False
What is diffusion?
a process where substances move directly through the plasma membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is simple diffusion?
Nonpolar molecules scatter on thier own
What is facilitated diffusion?
Polar molecules are moved through the plasma membrane by binding to protein carriers or through channels
________ diffusion use proteins that shield a polar molecule from the nonpolar interior of the cell membrane.
Facilitated diffusion
What passive transport is the transfer of water?
Osmosis
During osmosis, water is transferred from areas of _______ concentration to areas of _________ concentration.
higher, lower
What is tonicity?
compares concentrations inside and outside of the cell
What does an isotonic solution mean?
concentration is equal- no net movement
What is the net movement of water when a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
the concentration oustside is higher than inside H2O moves out of cell
What is the tonicity of a solution where concentration of solutes outside the cell are lower than inside the cell?
hypotonic
Net movement when cell is places in hypotonic solution?
concentration outside the cell is lower than inside H2O moves into cell