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105 Cards in this Set

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Nutrition science is
The study of food including how food nourishes our bodies and how food influences our health
Nutrition is involved in the prevention of many diseases such as
scurvy-Vit. C deficiency
goiter-Iodine
rickets- Vit. D
Nutrition is involved in the treatment of many diseases such as
diabetes- simple carbs
heart disease- fat, cholesterol
renal disease-protin
obesity
goals of healthy people 2010:
1. increase quality of life
2. eliminate health disparities
what are nutrients?
chemicals in foods critical to human growth and function
the six nutrients are:
carbohydrates
fats
proteins
vitamins
minerals
water
3 macronutrients and funciotn
carbs, fats, proteins- provide energy to the body
Carbohydrates- what they do, how many kcal, where they are found
Carbs provide energy to the body, esp. the brain. 4 kcal/gm, founds in grains, vegs, fruits, legumes
Fat-composed of, kcal, function, found in
Composed of lipids (molecules that are insoluble in water)
9kcal.gm, source of energy during rest/low intensity exercise, found in butter, margarine, veg. oil
Proteins impt, for, sources
Proteins are impt for building cells and tissues, maintaining bones, repairing damage, regulating metabolism. Sources: meats, nuts, seeds, dairy
Vitamins are
organic molecules that assist in body processes
Fat soluble vitamins
Dissolve in fat, stored in liver and adipose tissure, potential for toxicity
ADEK
Water soluble vitamins
dissolve in water, excess is excreted and cannot be stored, BC
Minerals needed include
sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium
DRI
average daily value, not daily value. For healthy people in the US
EAR
meets nutrition requirements of 50% in a lifestage/gender group
Food labels must contain all of these:
Statement of Identity, Nutrition Info., Net Contents, ingredients, Manufacturer's Address
24 hour recall
exact
estimated food records
estimated
weighed or measured food records
most precise
food frequency questionnaires
patterns of food consumption
The food we eat undergoes 3 processes:
Digestion, Absorption, Elimination
GI tract includes:
Stomach, intestines, spincters, accessory organs
Digestion
process of breaking down large food molecules to smaller molecules
Two types of digestion
mechanical (chewing)
chemical (salivary amylase- carbs.)
Epiglottis
Covers opening to trachea
Peristalsis
muscular contractions moving food through GI tract
Separates esophagus from the stomach:
Gastroesophageal spincter
Digestion in the stomach includes
Mechanical- mix food with gastric juice
Chemical- digestion of proteins, fats
Gastric juice contains
HCL acid- denatures proteins, activates pepsin
pepsin- enzyme to digest protein
gastric lipase- enzyme to digest fat
mucus- protective lining in stomach
Chyme
semi-solid product of mechanical digestion in the stomach
From the stomach, chyme is slowly released through the ________spincter to the small intestine
pyloric
Accessory organs of the GI include:
Liver- produces bile to emulsify fat
pancreas-produces digestive enzymes, bicarbonate to neutralize chyme
gall bladder- stores bile
absorption- the process of ...
taking molecules across a cell membrane and into cells of the body
A small amount of absorption occurs in the stomach, most absorption of nutrients occur in the small intestines.
Lining of the GI tract has special structures to facilitate absorption-called...
Villi- folds in lining
microvilli- brush border
fat soluble abosorbed through villi, H20 soluble through blood stream
Undigested food moves through the ________spincter to the large intestine
Ileocecol valve
Crohn's - cure, place, continuous, sym?
no cure, lower small intestine, not continuous, bloody diarrhea
Ulcerative colitis- cure, place, continuous, sym?
curable, large intestine, is continuous, not bloody
GERD is
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
persistent heartburn
Celiac disease
Genetic, intolerance for gluten, diet lacking wheat, rye, barley
IBS
symptoms: cramps, bloating, diarrhea
Diverticulosis
pouches along large intestine, reduced by high fiber diet
If pouches become inflamed- Diverticulitis
Lipids
molecules that are insoluble in water
Three types of lipids in foods:
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols
Triglycerides are composed of
Three fatty acids( long chains of carbon atoms surrounded by H atoms)
Glycerol molecule( 3 carbon alcohol that is a backbone)
Fatty acids can differ in..
length, shape, saturation
Long fatty acids
Medium
Short
>_ 14 carbons,
6-12 carbons
<6 carbons
saturated
monounsaturated
polyunsaturated
all C's have a H
lack H atoms in one region
lack H atoms in multiple places
Unsaturated fatty acids
liquid at room temp.
Unsaturated fatty acids w H atoms on same side of Carbon chain
cis
Unsaturated fatty acids w/ H on opposite sides of carbon chain
trans
Hydrogenation:
The addition of H atoms to unsaturated fatty acids; creates trans fatty acids, ups LDLs
Phospholipids
soluble in H2O
Glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, phosphate
Function of phospholipids
component of cell membranes
lipid transport as part of lipoproteins
emulsifier
Sterols
lipids containing multiple carbon rings
Sterol function:
component of cell membranes, percursor to other substances like:sterol hormones, vitamin D, bile acids
Food sources: animal products
__________digestion of fats occurs in the mouth or stomach
minimal
Digestion of fats begins in the _______
small intestine
As fat enters the small intestine, ____ from the _____ is secreted stimulated by_________. The ____ emulsifies fat and then ______ ________ break fat into 2 separate fatty acids and a monoglyceride
bile, gall bladder, CCK.
bile, pancreatic enzymes
__________transport free fatty acids to the mucosal cells of the stomach
Micelles
Once inside the mucosal cells, the triglycerides are reassembled. ___________are lipoproteins produced by the cells lining the sm. intestine for absorption. They deliver lipids from intestines to cells and liver through lymphatic system and then dump into bl. stream.
Chylomicrons
True/False
Short and medium chain fatty acids are absorbed more quickly bc they are not arranged into chylomicrons
True
__________in the chylomicrons must be disassembled by _____ ______ before they can enter the body cells
TRiglycerides, lipoprotein lipase
Fat- kcal
9 kcal/gm
two essential fattty acids- essential bc there are C=C double bonds before the 9th C- cannot be made in body
Alpha linolenic acid (omega 3)
leafy greens, fatty fish

Linoleic (omega 6)
vegetable and nut oils
Fat is essential to:
Cell membrane strucutre
protection of internal organs
insulation
AMDR for fat
20-35% calories should be from fat
saturated fat should be no more than __% of total calories
7
invisible fats- ex.'s
marbeled meat, added or naturally occuring
3 types of fat replacers:
1. protein-based
2. carb-based
3. fat based
-Olestra- indigestable, reduces absorption of ADEK, too much causes diarrhea
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease:
overweight
smoking
inactivity
high bp
diabetes
LDLs
bad cholesterol
HDLs
good cholesterol
proteins are
large complex chains of amino acids
proteins contain
C, N, O, H

(primary source of N)
how many amino acids are used in the body?
20
conditionally essential amino acids are..
non essential AA's that become essential in certain situations
ex. tyrosine
phe--> tyr
clinical condition- PKU
gene expression
the process of using a gene to make a protein
transcription
occurs in the nucleus, use of genetic info in DNA to make RNA
translation
occurs on ribosomes, conversion of genetic info in RNA to the AA sequence of a protein
incomplete protein
doesn't contain all 9 EAA's
sources: vegs, grains, legumes
complete protein
all 9 EAA's
sources: meat, chicken, fish
mutual supplementation
using 2 incomplete proteins to make a complete protein
complementary proteins
two protein sources that together supply all 9 EAA's
ex- beans and rice
functions of protein
growth, repair, and maintenance of cells
enzymes- Phe-->tyr
hormones- insulin, glucagon
fluid and electrolyte balance- albumen
energy source- amine group taken off
Two forms of protein-energy malnutrition
Marasmus- inadeq. protein and energy - severe wasting

Kwashiorkor-low protein, adeq. calories- adema of the stomach
Antioxidants ex's
Vit. E, Vit. C, Beta-carotene, Vit. A, Selenium
Free radical
An atom that has lost an e- and is left with an unpaired e-
Free radicals are produced by:
Pollution
UV light
toxic substances
Antiox's function in 2 ways
Vitamins sometimes donate e-'s to stabilize free radicals
Minerals act w/ enzyme systems to destroy ex's:
superoxide dismutase
catalase
glutathioine peroxidase
cofactors for superoxide dismutase
copper, zinc, manganese
cofactor for catalase
iron
Vitamin E
fat soluble
primarily antiox
protects PUSF
protects LDL
sources: veg. oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germ
too much can interfere w/ anitcoagulants
Vitamin C
water soluble
antioxidant
regenerates oxidized E
prevents scurvy
enhances immune sys.
too much- nosebleeds, nausea
too little- bleeding gums, loose teeth
Beta carotene
carotid- fat soluble
pre-cursor of retinol
prevents oxidation in cell membranes, LDLs
protect skin and eyes
too much- orange skin
Vitamin A
F.S
3 active forms: Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid
functions: protects LDLs, proper vision, cell differentiation
too much- highly toxic, birth defects in eyes
too little- night blindness in elderly
Selenium
AO, part of glutathione peroxidase, production of thyroxine (thyroid hormone)
too much- brittle nails, hair
too little-
Kashan- heart disease
Kashin-Beck-arthritis
Cancer risk factors
Tobacco use, sun exposure, nutrition, environmental exposure, low activity
Phytochemicals
Occur in plants, reduce risk of cancer
source- lycopene, flavonoids
AO's reduce risk of CV disease by:
preventing ox. damage to LDLs
anticoagulant to prevent bl clots
reduces low grade inflammation
components of blood
leucocytes- wbc, immune
erythrocytes-Rbc- ox
platelets- clotting
plasma
Vitamin K
coenzyme for proteins involved in blood clotting
Iron
component of hemoglobin- carries ox. in erythrocytes
of myoglobin- ox to muscles
2 types of Fe found in foods
Heme- easily absorbed, animal-based foods, part of hemo- and myo- globin
Non-Heme- Not easily absorbed, plant and animal based foods
Too much iron
fatal poisoning- nausea, vomiting, dizziness