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214 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
convert sunshine into energy
autotrophic organisms
obtain energy catabolically
heterotrophs
the ultimate source of energy?
the sun
the breakdown of organic nutrients
catabolical
____compounds + ______ yields _______+_______+______
1) organic
2)oxygen
3)carbon dioxide
4)water
5)energy
waste products of respiration in heterotrophs
CO2 & H2O
What plays an essential role in cell metabolism?
glucose
How is ATP made?
converting glucose into energy
How do metabolic pathways yield energy?
transfer of electrons
The transfer of electrons in cellular respiration is what kind of reactions?
redox reactions
A chemical reaction resulting in the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another
redox reaction
the loss of electrons from a substance
oxidation
the gain of electrons substance
reduction
OIL REG?
oxidation is loss; reduction is gained
In cellular respiration in terms of redox reaction, what is oxidized and what is reduced?
glucose; oxygen
where do electrons go after they are cleaved?
Electrons usually pass first to an electron acceptor
A coenzyme named NAD+ is a what?
electron acceptor
The enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of the transfer of 2 electrons and 1 protons is?
dehydrogenase
What is NAD+?
nicotinamide adenine dinucletide
aerobic process (with oxygen)
aerobic respiration
anaerobic process (no oxygen)
fermentation pathway
lactic acid (lactate) is the end product
latic acid
ethanol & CO2 are end products
acohol fermentation
Lactic acid build up causes what?
aching
What is alcohol fermentation carried out by?
yeast
Fermentations do not oxidize what completely?
glucose
In fermentation what happens to the electrons?
End up in fermentation end products, no energy obtained
In fermentation what happens to the carbon from glucose?
Ends up in fermentation end products, still energy present since not compltely oxidized.
breaks down complex molecules to simpler compounds (from proteins to amino acids)
catabolic metabolism
consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones (synthesis of proteins from amino acids)
anabolic metabolism
interaction between catabolic and anabolic pathways
energy coupling
capacity to do work; the ability to rearrange a collection of matter
energy
when energy is associated with the relative motion of objects
kinetic energy
an object not presently moving may still possess energy
potential energy
the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
chemical energy
the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
thermodynamics
energy can be transferred and transformed but it can not be created or destroyed
1st Law of Thermodynamics
every energy transfer or transformation increses the entropy of the universe
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
a meausre of disorder
entropy
the portion of a systems energy that is available to preform work
free energy
reactions proceed with a new release of free energy and Delta G is negative
exergonic
reactions absorb free energy from the environment and Delta G is positive
endergonic
The ____ of ATP is _____in the ________________.
1) energy
2) stored
3) bonds between the 3 phosphates
the phosphate group generated is _______ to some other molecule with the help of an enzyme
transferreed
the molecule that receives the phosphate
phosphorylated
what speeds up the rate of reactions?
enzymes
chemical agents that change the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
catalysts
the intial investment of energy for starting a reaction
activation energy
A pocket or groove on the surface of a protein, composed of only a few of the enzymes amino acids.
active site
3 groups of factors that affect enzyme activity?
1) environmental conditions
2) cofactors
3) enzyme inhibitors
non-protein helpers for catalytic activity
cofactors
metal atoms are what cofactors?
inorganic
vitamins are what kind of molecule?
organic
resemble the substrate and compete for the active site
competitive inhibitors
binds the enzyme at a location away from the active site but alters the conformation of the enzyme so that the active site is no longer functional
noncompetitive inhibitors
loss (break) of electrons
oxidation of pyruvate
Where does the citric acid take place?
the mitochondrial matrix
What is ATP generate from?
substrate-level phosphorylation
What happens in the citric acid cycle?
decomposes a derivative of Acetyl CoA to CO2 & donates electrons to the electron transport chain
In the citric acid cycle what are the 2 different electron carriers?
NAD & FAD
The citric acid cycle yieds?
electrons (FAD & NAD) and 2 ATP
The steps of the citric acid cycle are ____ and occur _____.
1) exergoinc
2) spontaneously
Why is aerobic respiration important?
Major mechanism of releasing energy from food molecules
loss (break) of electrons
oxidation of pyruvate
Where is the electron transport chain located?
It is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
Where does the citric acid take place?
the mitochondrial matrix
What is the final electron acceptor?
o2
What is ATP generate from?
substrate-level phosphorylation
What happens in the citric acid cycle?
decomposes a derivative of Acetyl CoA to CO2 & donates electrons to the electron transport chain
In the citric acid cycle what are the 2 different electron carriers?
NAD & FAD
The citric acid cycle yieds?
electrons (FAD & NAD) and 2 ATP
The steps of the citric acid cycle are ____ and occur _____.
1) exergoinc
2) spontaneously
Why is aerobic respiration important?
Major mechanism of releasing energy from food molecules
Where is the electron transport chain located?
It is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
What is the final electron acceptor?
o2
What is the powerhouse of the cell?
Mitochondria
Membrane of the mitochondria is known as?
cristae
Electron carries of ETS are embedded in the?
membrane
The energy released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondria can use to make ATP, this mode of ATP synthesis is called??
oxidative phosphorylation
a mechanism for energy coupling?
chemiosmosis
ATP synthase is located where?
in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Oxidative phosphorylation is an efficient process whereby ADP is generate by the breakdown of ATP? (TRUE OR FALSE)
False
In total how many ATP's are produced per glucose?
36-38 ATP
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is preformed by?
Autotrophs
Tissue in the interior of the leaf?
mesophyll
The subcellular organelle involved in photosynthesis is?
chloroplast
There are about ____ to ____ chloroplasts in each mesophyll cell.
1) 30
2) 40
CO2 enters a leaf and O2 exits through pores.
stomata
The fluid within the chloroplast
Stroma
A system of interconnected membranes that divide the stroma from the thylakoid space
Thylakoid membranes
*spree candy
Where is chlorophyll located?
In the thylakoid membranes
When the thylakoid membranes are stacked they are called?
grana
2 sets of reactions that cooperate to convert light energy into chemical energy of food?
Light reactions and Calvin cycle
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of?
splitting water molecules
The light harvesting units of the thylakoid membrane?
photosystems
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
in the stroma of the chloroplast
The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds is?
carbon fixation
Incorporates CO2 by attaching CO2 to a 5-carbon sugar named?
ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)
the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction
Rubisco
3 Phases of the Calvin Cycle
*carbon fixation
*reduction
*regeneration of RuBP
3 stages of cell signaling
1) reception
2) transduction
3) response
In reception what is the usual receptor?
plasma membrane
A ligand resides where and does what?
Resides outside of the cell and binds to a receptor protein to make it undergo a shape change
What is a major type of receptors?
G-protein-linked receptors
cell signaling involves proteins embedded within the plasma membrane what are those proteins called?
receptors
Receptors are composed of ___ embedded in the plasma membrane, and have their N and C termini exposed to the ____ and _____.
1) protein
2) ECM
3) cytoplasm
____ stage converts the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
transduction
What functions like molecular ON/OFF switches
G proteins
GDP bound =
GTP bound =
inactive
active
A widely used process for regulating protein activity?
protein phosphorylation
The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is?
*act on substrate proteins
protein kinase
An enzyme that adds phosphates to other molecules is called a(n)?
Kinase
A process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular
response through a series of steps
Signal Transduction Pathway
3 types of cell communication in animal cells
– Local regulators
– Distant communication
– Direct contact between cell
a secreting cell acts on nearby
target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator
into the extracellular fluid (growth factors)
Paracrine signaling
a nerve cell releases
neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse (the narrow
space between transmitting and target cell)
Synaptic signaling
Distant communication includes:
hormone signaling
The transduced signal finally triggers a ______ ______ response.
specific cellular
a cell’s total hereditary
endowment of DNA
Genome
the division of one cell into daughter cells
cell division
how many chromosomes does a somatic cell have?
45 chromosomes
how many chromosomes does a reproductive cell have?
23 chromosomes
What is another name for a reproductive cell?
germ cell
Eukaryotic nucleus has more than 1 _____ molecule.
DNA
DNA complexed with proteins, what are they called?
histones
This thing is coiled to fit in the nucleus, it helps control the activity of genes, and maintains the structure of DNA
chromatin
the activity of genes is?
transcription
Another name for the regular sequence of cell growth and division
cell cycle
the knuckle glue of the sister chromatid
centromere
sister chromatids consists of duplicated chromosomes?

(True or False)
True
G1- Gap Phase 1 is the ____________ phase?
initial growth
DNA is replicated in the what phase?
S phase
G2- Gap Phase 2 is the __________________ phase?
preparation for division
Nuclear Division and Cytokinesis is what phase?
Mitosis
The separation of genetic info into two quantities
mitosis
5 phases of Mitosis
1) prophase
2) prometaphase
3) metaphase
4) anaphase
5) telophase
Transcription (RNA) and ribosome substance is in the active nucleus of what phase?
Interphase
Chromatin coils to form chromosomes, Nucleoli disappear, and the nuclear envelope is still there; what phase?
prophase
______ organize microtubles of spindle apparatus
centrosomes
The region where chromatids are held together?
centromere
protein structure on chromatids where spindle microtubles attach, located at the centromere region
kinetochore
Nuclear envelope begins to breakdown, microtubles of the spindle now invade the nucleus, and everything condenses
prometaphase
The center of the spindle apparatus?
metaphase plate
Chromosomes line up
with centromeres in a
plane in the center of the
spindle apparatus
metaphase
Sister chromatids separate, and the spindle fibers shorten and
pull sister chromatids in
opposite directions
anaphase
In anaphase the sister chromatids are now referred to as?
chromosomes
2 daughter nuclei reorganize
• Spindle disperses, nuclear envelope and nucleoli
reform
• Chromatin fiber of each
chromosome becomes less
tightly coiled
• 2 genetically identical
daughter nuclei are seen
telophase
What is underway during the telophase stage?
Cytokinesis
During anaphase spindle fibers are responsible for doing what?
pulling the sister chromatids apart
the sole parent and
passes on all of its genes
directly to its offspring
single individual
_______derived by mitosis & is
genetically identical to
the parent
budding
a group of genetically identical
individuals
clone
Involves the uniting of
genes from 2 parent
sexual reproduction
_______results
from sexual reproduction
compared to asexual
reproduction
genetic variation
a method of organizing the
chromosomes of a cell in
relation to number, size, and type
karyotype
Chromosomes have
partners that look quite
similar. These pairs are called
homologous chromosomes
(homologs).
Specific location of a gene
locus
The X and Y chromosomes are called
sex chromosomes
The remaining chromosomes in the body are called
autosomes
- a cell with a single set of chromosomes
haploid
- a cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes, one
inherited from each parent
diploid
Human females have a homologous pair of ___ chromosomes
Males have one ___and one ___
1) X
2&3) X, Y
the process that halves the diploid set to a single haploid set of chromosomes, resulting in the haploid germ cells
meiosis
restores the diploid set
fertilization
Chromosomes replicate - each chromosome is
actually 2 sister chromatids
Meiosis 1
No DNA replication (no interphase)
This results in 4 daughter cells instead of 2 and each
one has only half the number of chromosomes
Meiosis 2
Chromosomes replicate. For each chromosome, the result is 2 genetically identical sister chromatids which are attached at their centromeres
Interphase
a complex of 4 chromosomes
tetrad
– Chromosomes begin to condense
Homologous chromosomes (each made up of 2 sister
chromatids) come together as pairs
Prophase 1
• Chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate
• Chromosomes still in homologous pair
Metaphase 1
• The spindle apparatus moves the homologous chromosomes
toward opposite poles
• The sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres and move as a single unit toward the same pole
Anaphase 1
• The spindle apparatus continues to separate the homologous
chromosome pairs until the chromosomes have reached the poles
of the cell
• Each pole now has a haploid set of chromosomes
• However, each chromosome stil has 2 sister chromatid
Telophase 1
• The sister chromatids finally separate and move towards
opposite pole
Anaphase 2
• Nuclei form at opposite poles of the cell
• Cytoplasmic division occurs
• There are now 4 haploid daughter cell
Telophase II & Cytokinesi
• The chromosomes are positioned at the plate in a mitosislike fashion with kinetochores of sister chromatids of each
chromosome pointing toward opposite pole
Metaphase 2
• No interphase (or DNA replication)
• A spindle apparatus forms and the chromosomes progress
towards the metaphase II plat
Prophase 2
A chicken has 78 chromosomes in its cells. During mitosis following DNA duplication, how many chromosomes are there in a somatic cell during prophase of mitosis?
78
A chicken has 78 chromosomes in its cells. How many chromosomes will be in each somatic cell of the chicken's offspring?
78
A chicken has 78 chromosomes in its cells. How many chromosomes are in each of the chicken's gametes (egg or sperm)?
39
Following fertilization of a chicken egg by a sperm, how many chromosomes will be in each somatic cell of the offspring?
78
_____is much longer and complicated than mitosis
interphase
____ phase of cell cycle is the key
phase in controlling cell division
G1
determines whether cell
divides
restriction point in G1
divides?
continues
nondividing state, G0 phase
may differentiat
stop
do not respond to normal
regulation of growth and
division
• They continue to grow and
divide
cancer cell
tumors are not cancerous
benign
tumors are cancerous, may impair
functions of organ or move
to other parts of body
malignant
a protein released by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
growth factor
crowded cells usually stop dividing (doesn’t happen in cancer cells
Density-dependent inhibition of cell division
3 Things unique to meiosis
1) Duplicated homologous chromosomes synapse
2) Homologous pairs of chromosomes align on the
metaphase plate
3) Sister chromosomes do not separate at anaphase I
of meiosis as they do in mitosis
You can see regions; they are physical manifestations of a genetic rearrangement
chiasmata
3 major ways sexual reproduction
increases genetic variation!
1. Independent assortment of chromosomes
2. Crossing over
3. Random fertilization
The arrangement of chromosomes on the
metaphase I plate determines which chromosomes
will be packaged together
Independent assortment of chromosomes
Occurs during prophase of meiosis I
crossing over
Homologous portions of 2 non-sister chromatids trade places
recombination
Each human egg or
sperm represents 8
million possible
chromosome
combinations
Random Fertilization
3 Things unique to meiosis
1) Duplicated homologous chromosomes synapse
2) Homologous pairs of chromosomes align on the
metaphase plate
3) Sister chromosomes do not separate at anaphase I
of meiosis as they do in mitosis
The sister chromatids finally separate and move towards
opposite poles
Anaphase II
You can see regions; they are physical manifestations of a genetic rearrangement
chiasmata
The chromosomes are positioned at the plate in a mitosislike fashion with kinetochores of sister chromatids of each
chromosome pointing toward opposite pole
Metaphase II
3 major ways sexual reproduction
increases genetic variation!
1. Independent assortment of chromosomes
2. Crossing over
3. Random fertilization
No interphase (or DNA replication)
• A spindle apparatus forms and the chromosomes progress
towards the metaphase II plate
Prophase II
The arrangement of chromosomes on the
metaphase I plate determines which chromosomes
will be packaged together
Independent assortment of chromosomes
Occurs during prophase of meiosis I
crossing over
Homologous portions of 2 non-sister chromatids trade places
recombination
Each human egg or
sperm represents 8
million possible
chromosome
combinations
Random Fertilization
The sister chromatids finally separate and move towards
opposite poles
Anaphase II
The chromosomes are positioned at the plate in a mitosislike fashion with kinetochores of sister chromatids of each
chromosome pointing toward opposite pole
Metaphase II
No interphase (or DNA replication)
• A spindle apparatus forms and the chromosomes progress
towards the metaphase II plate
Prophase II
Nuclei form at opposite poles of the cell
• Cytoplasmic division occurs
• There are now 4 haploid daughter cells
Telophase II and Cytokinesis
How many chromosomes were observed in the somatic cells of the offspring of the cross (44X50)?
47
Do you predict that the female offspring would be able to form viable gametes? Why or why not?
No, because homologos would not pair during prophase I