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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between Homeotherm and Poikilotherm?
Homeotherm is warm blooded and maintains its own temp, while Poikilotherms are cold blooded and body temp varies with surroundings
What is BMR and how does it vary with size?
BMR is Basal Metabolic rate. Smaller size = higher BMR
Bigger size = Smaller BMR
How do humans deal with cold?
Humans shivver causing muscle contraction, vessels constrict to allow less blood flow to outer body.
How do other vertabrates deal with cold?
Brown Adipose Tissue filled with mitochondiria produces UCP and generates no ATP but heat. Babies have this but not adults.
What are the levels of organization?
Atoms, Cells, Tissues, Organ, Organ-system, Organism.
What is Allometric Growth?
Different parts of body grow at different rates. Ex:arms grow faster than other parts
What is the relative energy cost of Locomotion in the 3 different types of movement, and in size?
Walking > Flying > Swimming
Smaller animal uses More energy than a large one to move
What is Thyroxine, and where is it produced?
Bats use Throxine to produce heat, and it is produced in the Thyroid.
What is Epithelial Tissue?
Epithelial Tissue is skin and the lining for organs and cavities of the body.
Where do all connective tissue lie, and what that made of?
All Connective tissue lie on a Base Membrane made of proteins.
What are the 3 types of attachments found in epithelial tissue, and what are their characteristics?
Desmosome - Connects cells with Glycoproteins

Tight Junction - where Proteins glue cells together

Gap Junction - A continuous hole through the cell
What do celia in your body do?
Transports Mucus from your lungs to throat.
What is the difference between Simple Squamous Epithelium and Stratafied Squamous Epithelium?
Simple - single layer of cells shaped like large flat tiles. Covers Heart, vessels, and Kidney

Stratafied - Contains many layers of cells. Only First layer undergoes mitosis, and cells just pile up on top.
What is Cuboidal Epithelium,What does it do, and where is it located?
Cuboidal Epithelia is shaped like dice, and it exists for Secretion and Absorbtion. Cuboidal Epithelia makes up part of Kidney and Thyroid.
What is the Bio definition of Vision? What is ROYGRIV? which ones has lowest & highest frequencies?
Vision - Translation of Light into Action Potentials

ROYGRIV - All the colors of the light spectrum

Red has lowest Freq, Violet has highest
What is a compound eye and it's characteristics?
-Found in Insects and Crustaceans
-tubes next to each other, each with a Lens and Retina
-Every lens forms a pixle
-Fast shadow changes of light alarms the insect, so its very hard to kill
-Does see pictures, colors, patterns
What is a Camera eye and it's Characteristics? (8)
-Inward – Cornea, Anterior Chamber, Iris, pupil, lens, Vitreous Body, optic nerve in back, retna covers inside of eye
-Cornea – Clear covering of eye
-Iris – Structure that carrys color
-Pupil – Hole where light goes through
-Lens – Focuses light
-Back and focuses on Retina – where light is received
-Space between Iris and Cornea – Anterior Chamber
-Inside is the Vitreous Body – Semi solid inside of eye
What is Glaucoma?
When there Fluid in the Anterior Chamber cannot be drained, causing pressure on Vitrious Body, then on Retina. Causing Blindness
What controls our Lens? What does it do?
We move our lens VIA Ciliary Muscle, and it allows us to focus near or far
What is Macula Lutea and Lovea Centralis?
When Light is focused on them, we get the best vision
What is Macular Degeneration?
When the Outer part of Lens begins to Degenerate, causing blindness. Could be related to Diabetes.
Where is the Blind spot?
On the Optic Disk, where neurons go back into the Brain.
What are the Retina Rod and Cones? Do they use the same Chemicals? Do they create Action potentials?
- Rod cells provide Black and White vision in Low Light.
- Cone cells provide Color vision in bright Light.
- Both uses the same chemical
- Rod and Cones NEVER produce action potentials, outer segments do.
What does our Retina cells do in darkness?
Rod cells releases Glutamic Acid, puts IPSP in the bipolar neuron and prevents it from activating next- No signal to Brain

**If a drug stopped the release of Glutamic acid, person will always see light
What is Rodopsin and what does it do?
Rodopsin is a Photosensitive chemical that reacts to light.

- It is also called Visual Purple, and is made from Vitamin A.
What are the parts of the ear?
External ear - Pinna is top of ear
Middle ear - 3 bones that transfers sound to inner ear
Inner ear - Where sound is translated into action potentials
What is the Tympanic Membrane?
It separates the Outside and Inside ear.
What are the Characteristics of SKELETAL Muscle? What does it do, and what does it look like?
Skeletal Muscle - Made up of Fibers, Functions in movement, has Striations.
What are the Characteristics of CARDIAC Muscle? What does it do, and what does it look like?
Cardiac Muscle - Has Striations, are Branched, and Connected by intercalated disc.
What are the Characteristics of SMOOTH Muscle? What does it do, and what does it look like? Found in?
Smooth Muscle - Individual cells with one nucleus, No Striations. Found in Intestines and Vessels, and controls BP
What are the properties of White Collagen Fibers, and where are they found?
White Collagen Fibers are like Steel wires, can be bent, twisted, but not break or stretch. Found in Muscles
What are the properties of Yellow Elastic Fibers, and where are they found?
Yellow Elastic Fibers, can be stretched and come back. They are found in ligaments, around joints, and between bones.
What is a Ground Substance, and what is it made of?
Ground Substance is a Protein Matrix that surrounds cells and fibers. They are made of Cells and Tissues called FIBROBLASTS
What are the characteristics of Collagen Fibers and what do they do?
Collagen Fibers in Tendons are packed close together. They function in Holding Muscle to Bone.
What does Elastic Tissue do?
They are packed together to form a Tendon.
Ligaments also has ____ in them
Collagen Fiber.
Eyes are enclosed and moves by _______
Adipose (Fat) Tissue
Cells that make up Adipose Tissue are called ______
What does Adipose tissue do?
Storage of energy as Triglycerides. Also produces a hormone that is related to Diabetes.
What is the Canal for Bone Marrow called?
Megulary Canal.
What is the function of Bone? Why is it important?
The function of bone is for Storage of Calcium. We need calcium for Muscle-Nerve Function, Blood clotting, and mechanical support.
What is the actual Compound found in Bones?
Calcium Phosphate
Describe the structure of a bone
Periosteum - a Dense Fiberous Tissue that covers the surface of bones allowing the attachment of Muscles and Tendons.

Epiphysis - The upper Proximal Epiphysis, and Bottom Distal Epiphysis of bone

Diaphysis - The middle long shaft of bone
Describe the structure of Dense Bone.
Bone Marrow - Inside
Dense Bone - rest
Round Osteons - determines bone structure
Layers of Bone between Osteons are called _______
What are the passages for Blood Vessels called? Where are they found?
The blood vessel Passage is called the Hyversion Canal, Found inside Osteons.
Gateway to brain, can block out unwanted senses
Controls Body temp, anger
Mid Brain
Functions in Reticular formation to keep you awake, and Pain supression
Gate is opened by receptor Protein
Gate is opened by second messenger
Skeletal Muscle tissue layers
Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium,
Pulling Force in Muscles
Cross Bridges
Proteins that prevent a muscle from contracting
Tropomyosin, Troponine
Frontal Lobe
Voluntary motor control. Personality and Thought.
Perietal Lobe
Sensations of body and the meanings
Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Hearing, Memory
Uses Acetylcholine for nerves. Damage = loss of memory