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60 Cards in this Set

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systematics
classification
Linnean grouping
grouping by shared characters
Cladistic/Phylogenic grouping
grouping by shared derived characters
Occam's Razor
with equally likely alternatives, the simplest one is likely correct
Parsimony
deals with the least amount of change on a branch (easier to lose a characteristic than gain one)
monophyletic
1 common ancestor and all of the descendants (Linnean and Cladistic)
paraphyletic
1 common ancestor leaving out at least one descendant (Linnean only)
polyphyletic
no common ancestors
homology
similar because of genetic background
analogy
similar because of convergence (no similar genetic backgrounds)
fossils
evidence of past life forms
"hard part" fossils
teeth, bones, shells, cell walls: materials that are difficult to destroy
coalification
compression fossils
permineralization
keeps organism in tact: organic material is replaced by cellular detail; Most informative fossil*
molecular clock hypothesis
organisms accumulate changes at a set rate
endosymbiosis
1 cell lives inside another in order for both to co-exist
phagocytosis
1 cell "eats" another
minimalist cell
DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm, cell (plasma) membrane
Typical Prokaryote
minimalist cell + cell wall + flagella + pili + secreted capsule; symbiont lifestyle
autotrophs
fix carbon, able to feed themselves without consuming energy from an outside source
heterotroph
don't fix carbon, obtain food from other organisms
photoautotroph
able to trap light energy-used for photosynthesis to make own food
chemoautotroph
run chemical reactions with inorganic materials in order to make own food
photoheterotroph
able to trap light energy-used for photosynthesis to make ATP, but not enough ATP to sustain itself; needs another source of ATP energy as well
chemoheterotroph
get ATP and energy from other organisms
nitrogen fixation
combining nitrogen with hydrogen to make ammonium-needed for creation of nucleotides, amino acids, and proteins
Nitrogenase
enzyme responsible for nitrogen fixation; irreversibly inhibited by oxygen (so it's found in anaerobic areas)
Obligate Aerobes
need oxygen for ATP production
Obligate Anaerobes
poisoned by oxygen and produce ATP with fermentation
Facultative Anaerobes
use oxygen for ATP production but can survive for long periods of time on fermentation
Extreme thermophiles
Archaea that thrive in very hot environments
Extreme halophiles
Archaea that thrive in very salty conditions
Methanogens
Archaea that release methane as a waste product; thrive in anaerobic conditions
cyanobacteria
photoautotrophs that are the only prokaryotes with plant-like oxygen-generating photosynthesis
Gram-positive bacteria
actinomycetes (decomposers/antibiotics), Bacillus, mycoplasma (zoonotic disease-only group with cell wall), staphylococcus
Spirochaetes
free-living and pathogenics (Lyme disease and syphilis)
Chlamydias
intracellular parasites of animals (need ATP-can't run on own metabolism well)
Alpha Proteobacteria
many nitrogen fixers and the closest relatives to the mitochondria
Gamma Proteobacteria
includes chemoautotrophs (purple and green) and E. Coli, Vibrio cholerae (cholera-"filth disease": sewage and water)
Beta proteobacteria
includes chemoautotrophs involved in the Nitrogen cycle
Delta proteobacteria
colonial mycobacteria, Bdellovibrio
Epsilon proteobacteria
mostly pathogens, campylobacter (food poisoning)
Diplomonads
Giardia, multiple flagella, simple cytoskeleton, 2 nuclei
Parabasalids
Trichomonas-STD, flagella and undulating membrane (like a sail)
Euglenoids
Euglena, anterior pocket with flagella, pellicle (changes shape) or lonca (doesn't change shape), most heterotrophs, some with plastids from 2ndary endosymbiosis
Kinetoplasids
Trypanosoma, single mitochondrion associated with kinetoplasts of DNA; symbionts, undulating membrane, zoonoses
Dinoflagellates
abundant components of both marine and freshwater phytoplankton; bioluminescent-an ATP driven chemical reaction that creates an eerie glow
Apicomplexans
parasites of animals that contain tiny infectious cells called sporozoites; contain non-photosynthetic plastids called apicoplasts (synthesis of fatty acids)
Ciliates
large, varied group named for their cilia that they use to move and feed
conjugation
sexual process in which 2 individuals exchange haploid micronuclei
Oomycetes
water molds, white rusts, downy mildews; cell walls made of cellulose
Diatoms
unicellular algae that have unique glass-like walls make of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix
Golden Algae
photosynthetic algae named for their yellow and brown carotenoids
Brown Algae
seaweeds; brown or olive color due to the carotenoids in their plastids
thallus
a seaweed body that is plant-like; lacks roots, stems, and leaves
alternation of generations
alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms
heteromorphic
sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different
isomorphic
sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally similar
Foraminiferans
named for their porous shells (tests)
Radiolarians
tests are fused into one delicate piece made of silica