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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the circulatory fluid of certain invertebrates, funtioning similar to blood (in all arthropods and most mollusks)
Interstitial Fluid
the liquid found between the cells of the body that provide much of the liquid environment of the body
the insoluble protein end product of blood coagulation, formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the presence of calcium ions
a protein in the blood plasma that is essential for the coagulation of blood. It is converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin
an enzyme of the blood plasma that catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the last step of the blood clotting process
a plasma protein envolved in blood coagulation that is converted into thrombin
any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system and that carry blood AWAY from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body
a smaller artery, leading from the arteries to the capillaries
a blood vessel carrying blood from the tissues to the heart
a smaller vein, especially one joining capillaries to larger veins
the smallest of the blood vessels; the very thin walls of capillaries are permeable to many molecules, and exhanges between blood and the tissues occurs across them; the vessels that connect arteries with veins
Conus Arteriousus
a conical puch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle, from which the pulmonary artery arises
Pulmonary Artery
carries blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary Vein
carries oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Oncotic Pressure
in blood plasma, the dissolved compounds have an smotic pressure
Angina Pectoris
chest pain due to ischemia, or lack of oxygenated blood to the heart
Ficks Law of Diffusion
the rate of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between two regions
Countercurrent Flow
water flows over the fishes lamellae in one direction and blood flows the opposite direction, oxygenation the blood (how fish breath)
Pleural Cavity
the thin space between the chest wall and lung tissues filled with a serous fluid
Tidal Volume
about 500 millimeters volume of air, movement/capacity of lungs with and without air
Vital Capacity
the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a forceful, maximum breath
potentially fatal condition, caused by smoking, vital capacity is reduced as the alveoli are progressivly destroyed
insufficient breathing to obtain oxygen
breathing too fast with a low metabolic rate
Aortic/Carotid Bodies
sensory structures that signal changes in pH of the blood, to the brain to increase breathing
sensors that stimulate increased breathing because of high carbon dioxide levels
the oxygen carrying pigment of red blood cells
a bluish, copper containing protein with an oxygen carrying funtion
Bohr Effect
an effect by wich an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in the pH reults in a reduction of the affinity of hemoglobin and oxygen, releasing oxygen into the blood stream
Chloride Shift
the movement of chloride ions from the plasma into red blood cells as a result of the ransfer of carbon dioxide from tissues to the plasma, a process that serves to maintiain blood pH
Carbonic Anhydrase
an enzyme that speeds up the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to more rapidly remove carbon dioxide from the body
Shallow Water Blackout
carbon dioxide levels in body are low, oxygen levels low, but body does not recognize to breath yet because CO2 is low, so you blackout, and when you take your breath you breath in water
Vaso Constrictors
block blood to appendiges
Diving Reflex
breathing/metabolism slows, no more blood to extremitites only to brain and organs, myoglobin is release
Nitrogen Narcosis
nitrogen gets into blood, person feels intoxicated
Bends (Chokes)
bubbles form in tussue when pressure is reduced too quickly and cause great pain when pressure is applied again
alveoli or lungs are weak and do not allow oxygen to be released, causing them to rupture, and oxygen bubbles get into arteries, eventually going to the brain and heart
signals bone marrow to produce more Red Blood Cells
blood kept away from skin surface to keep body warmer
blood releases heat when it passes near the skin, cooling the body
the pooling of blood in an artery
Coronary Artery
provides blood for the heart
thickening of arterial lumen due to fatty acids
hardening of arteries due to calcium buildup
Systolic Blood Pressure
higher of the two pressures; how hard the heart must work to pump blood back after circulation is cut off
Diastolic Blood Pressure
lower of the two pressures; resting blood pressure
Sensory Neurons
nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting externam stimuli from the organisms environment
Motor Neurons
neurons located in the Central Nervous System
Interneurons (Association Neurons)
a nerve cell found only in the middle of the spinal cord that acts as a functional link between sensory neurons and motor neurons
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord, main communication in the body
Peripheral Nervous System
nerves and neurons that signal to the CNS
Somatic Motor Neurons
voluntary neurons that have to be signaled before moving
Autonomic Motor Neurons
involuntary neurons that move body parts without being signaled to do such
Sympathetic Autonomic Neurons
signals body to make a quick reaction when startled
Parasympathetic Autonomic Neurons
calms body back down after being scared
Cell Body
compact bundle of nerve cell
recieve stimulants, sending them towards the cell body; are capable of altering messages
carrie information from the dendrites; myelinated
a fatty layer surronding axons that premote quicker signal transportation
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelinated axons, where axon is exposed
Gray Matter
gray nerve tissue, dendrite and ganglion
White Matter
contains axon
the process by which multiple or repeated stimuli can produce a response in a nerve, muscle, or other part that one stimulus alone cannot produce
the point at which a stimulant is of sufficient intensity to produce and effect
Saltatory Conduction
a form of nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from one Node of Ranvier to the next, rather then traveling along the entire axon
the junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell
Synaptic Vesicle
in a neuron, stores the various neurotransmitters that are released during exocytosis
Synaptic Cleft
the space between neurons at a nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter called also synaptic gap
a chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
a temporary increase in post synaptic membrane potential caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell
the change in membrane voltage of a postsynaptic neuron which results from activation of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors
an inhibitory neurotransmitter found, allowing for the opening of ion channels
reduction of psychological or behavoiral response occuring when a specific stimulus occurs repeatedly
Limbic System
a ring of interconnected structures in the midline of the brain around the hypothalamus involved with emotion and memory and with hoeostatic regulatory systems
Knee-Jerk Reflex
Patellar Reflex
mass of nerve cell bodies
released by endocrine glands into the blood stream; travel a long distance; dont react until they reach the target cell
released by neurons into synapse; travel a very short distance
released by neurons into the blood stream
Endocrine Gland
secrete directly into the blood stream
Exocrine Gland
an externally secreting gland, secretes into ducts
drugs that reduce pain, fever, and inflammation
fat soluble (lipid)
Diabetes Insipidus
a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by intense thirst and excessive urination, caused by a defficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin
Diabetes Mellitus
a chronic disease in which there is too much glucose in the blood, and not enough insulin is produced to lower the levels

T1 - beta cells destroyed
T2 - reduced sensativity on target cells = no glucose absorption
Juvenile Hormone
a hormone in insect larvae that inhibits exdysone, thereby preventing molting and the development of larvae into adults until its level drops
Parathyroid Gland
a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that regulates the amount of calcium and phosphorous in the body
a thyroid gland hormone that regulates the metabolic rate of the body
Paracrine Regulators
molecules not produced by endocrine glands, and they stay in organ tissue
molecules released into the environment (sex attractant)
Trophic Hormones
stimulate other hormones to start producing/secreting
Endocrine Disruptive Chemicals
mimic molecules that send negative feedback, but do not act the same as the actual hormone
Negative Feedback
signal to the brain telling it to stop production of a certain hormone becuase there is enough
large in quantity or number; plentiful
an enzyme that promotes oxidation of uric acid to allantoin, carbon dioxide, and other products and that is found in the liver, kidney, and brain of most animals other than primates
white, crystallin oxidation product of uric acid that is the metabolic end product of vertebrate purine oxidation and is used medicinally to promote tissue growth
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metablosim resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
system of exretory tubules that expel fluids and wastes from the body
the ciliated funnel shaped inner opening of a nephridium into the coelom in some invertebrates and lower vertebrates
having the same concentration of solutes as the blood
having the higher osmotic pressure/concentration of two solutions
having the lower osmotic pressure/concentration of two solutions
Vasa Recta
numerous small vessels that arise from the terminal branches of arteries supplying the intestine; play a role in concentration of urine