Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/177

Click to flip

177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of an organism, including which species are closely related and in what order related species evolved; often represented by a evolutionary tree
heterotroph
feeds on other plants or animals to gain energy by degrading their organic molecules
zygote
the diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes
cleavage
in vertabrates, a rapid series of successive cell divisions of a fertilized egg, forming a hollow sphere of cells called a blastula
morula
solid ball of cells in the early stage of embryonic development
blastopore
in vertebrate development, the opening that connects the archenteron cavity of a gastrula stage embryo with the outside
gastrula
in vertebrates, the embryonic stage in which the blastula with its single layer of cells turns into a 3 layered embryon made up of the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
tissue
a group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit
parazoa
multicell organisms having less specialized cells, and no tissue
metazoa
multicell organisms having cells that are differentiated and form tissues and organs
radiata
a group of invertebrates having all parts arranged radially around the vertical axis of the body, and various organs repeated symetrically in each ray
bilateria
having bilateral symmetry
chordata
the phylum of animals who have a single dorsal neve cord and notocord (a backbone)
cephalization
evolutionary trend in animal kingdom toward centralization of nuetral and sensory organs in or near the head
coelom
gut cavity between the body wall and digestive tract
acoelomate
an animal lacking a coelom
coelomates
animals that contain a coelom completely within the mesoderm
metamerism
division of the body into metameres, homologous segments
clade
a group of organisms whose members share homologous features derived from a common ancestor
polyphyletic
a group that does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group
monophyletic
a group that includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all its decendents
mesoderm
1 of the 3 embryonic germ layers that form in the gastrula, it gives rise to muscle, bone, and other connective tissues, the circulatory system, and most excretory and reproductive systems
ectoderm
1 of the 3 embryonic germ layers that form in the gastrula, it gives rise to the outter epitheleum of the body (skin, hair, nails) and to the nerve tissue, including sense organs like the brain and spinal cord
endoderm
1 of the 3 embryonic germ layers that form in the gastrula, it gives rise to the epitheleum that lines internal structures and most of the digestive and resperitory tracts
segmentation
subdivision of an organism or organ into equivilant parts
psuedocoelomates
have a body cavity located between the mesoderm and endoderm
protosomes
spiral cleavage, determinate development (cells fate is prederermined), blastopore becomes the mouth, coelom forms after mesoderm cells seperate
dueterostomes
radial cleavage, indeterminate development, blastopore becomes the anus, coelom formed via blastopore
evo-devo
evolutionary and developmental biology
Cambrian Explosion
535 million years ago when animal diversity became very abundant
lophophore
a ring or ushaped arrangment of tentacles, that lead to the mouth of an animal (like in jellyfish)
trocophore
a free swimming larval stage unique to the molluk and annelids
ecdysozoans
animals that increase their size by molting their extermal skeleton
choanocyte
one of the layers of flagellated cells lining the body cavity of a sponge and characterized by a collar of cytoplasmt
medusa
a saucer or dome shaped free swimming jellyfish or hydra
polyp
a sedentary type of animal from characterized by a more or less fixed base, columnar body, and free end with mouth (sponge)
nematocyst
an organ in coelenterates consisting of a minute capsule containing an ejectable thread that causes a sting
flame cells
cells that line the exretory tubules in flatworms, the tubules are tiny hollow tubes
gastrovascular cavity
the body cavity that functions with digestion and transportation of nutrients
gastrodermis
the inner layer of cells that lines the gastrovascular cavity
Sponges
parazoa, the simplest animals
detritivore
organism that uses organic waste as a food source
coprophagy
organisms that feed on their own fesces
metamorphosis
larval lives in one environment and the adult lives in a different environment
anterior
front
posterior
back
dorsal
towards the spinal column
ventral
towards the belly surface
sagital plane
splits bilateral symmetrical animals down the middle from head to toe
myzostomids
animals with no body cavity and uncomplete segmentation
hermaphroditic
an organism in which reproductive organs of both sexes are present
radula
a flexible tonguelike organ in certain mollusks, having rows of horny teeth to help brake up food
Mother-of-Pearl
a hard, iridescent substance that forms the inner layer of certain mollusks shells; used for making decorations
Trocophore Larva
free swimming larva with rows or cilia, found in some mollusks and annelids
Mantle
layer of tissue that covers certain coelomates and secretes the material needed to make a shell
Setae
still hair like bristles that help earth worms attach to surfaces with slipping
Clitellum
a glandular region in the epidermis of annelids that secretes a viscous fluid to form a cocoon for their eggs
Exoskeleton
a hard outter structure like a shel used for protection and to hold together the structure
Ecdysis
the shedding of an outter layer of skin or exoskeleton
Tracheae (windpipe)
tube carrying air from larynx to bronchi
Malpighian Tubules
blind tubules opening into the hindgut of terrestrial arthropods; they function as excretory glands
Nauplius
the first larva of crustaceans
Nerve cord
primary bundle of nerves in chordates that connect the brain to the major muscles and organs of the body
Notocord
in chordates, a dorsal rod of cartilage that runs the length of the body and forms the primitive axial skeleton in the embryos of all chordates
Pharyngeal Slits
used in chordates that live in the water, covered by cilia, water is sifted through and food particles are caught
Pharynx
in vertebrates, a muscular tube that connects the mouth cavity and the esophagus, its serves as the gateway to the digestive tract
Centrum
interior body of a vertebrate
Tetrapods
animals that are vertebrates and have four legs
Chondrichthyes
class of animal - jawed fish with paired nostrils, scales, two chambered hears and skeletons make of cartilage, not bone (shark)
Placoderms
prehistoric fish characterized by armour plating; one of the first jawed fish
Swim Bladder
an internal organ filled with gas that helps a fish control its bouyancy
Pulmonary Vein
carries oxygen from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Therapsid
mammal like reptiles
Amniotic Eggs
an egg that is isolated and protected from the environment by a more or less impervious shell during the period of its development and is completely self sufficient, requiring only oxygen
chorion
the outter member of the double membrane that surronds the embryo of most vertebrates; in placental mammals, it contributes to the structure of the placenta
Amnion
the inner most of the extraembryonic membranes; the amnion forms a fluid filled sac around the embryo in amniotic cells
Allantois
a membrane of the amniotic egg that functions in repiration and excretion in birds and reptiles and plays an important role in the development of the placenta in most animals
Amniotes
tetrapod vertebrates that following embryonic development are four legged hetertrophs, they skip a larval stage
Ecothermic
animals whose body temperature is regulated by their behavior and their surrondings
Endothermic
animals capable of maintaing a constant body temperature
Homeothermic
an organism capable of maintaining a stable body temperature independent of the environment temperature
Poikilothermic
animals whose body temperatures vary, often matching the surronding temperature of the immediate environment
Placenta
in mammals, a tissue formed in part from the inner lining of the uterus and in part from other membranes through which the embryo is nourished and waste carried away
Marsupium
an external abdominal pouch in most marsupials where newborn offspring are suckled
Monotremes
an egg laying mammal
Australopithecines
group of extinct hominids that are closely related to humans
Homo Erectus
4.5 feet tall, walked upright, larger brain, skull suggests it was able to talk, out of Africa
Homo Neoanderthalensis
European in origin, similar to Homo Erectus, bet were first humans to show sign of care and belief of life after death
Homo Sapiens
only surviving species of the genus homo, modern day human
Homodent Dentition
teeth in jaw have the same shape
Bipedalism
moving on two appendages (walk, run, skip)
Incomplete metamorphosis
egg hatches and the first organism looks similar to the adult
Complete metamorphosis
egg hatches into larve, then it enters a resting stage (pupa) and is formed into an adult
Cephalathorax
head and thorax combination
Diadema
nocturnal sea urchine with sharp spines
Characteristics of a Vertebrate
pharyngeal gill pouches, hollow dorsal tubular nerve cord, notocord, and a post anal tail
First animals to walk on land
amphibians, gave rise to reptiles
Therapsids (reptile)
gave rise to mammals
Thecodonts (reptile)
a bird that gave rise to dinosaurs
Primates
have grasping fingers and toes, and have binocular vision
Chorion
tissue just beneath the shell that allows the egg to breath
Amnion
encases the embryo and helps maintain its fluid environment
Yolk Sac
stored food in an egg
Allantois
stores nitrogen and removes waste
Germ Layers
the three cell layers formed at gastrulation of the embryo that foreshadow the future organization of tissues, the layers from the outside inwards are, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
Peritoneal Cavity
space in between the perietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum
Thorac Cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck, containing the lungs and heart
Endocrine Glands
ductless gland that secretes hormones into the extracellular spaces, from with they diffuse into the circulatory system
Exocrine Glands
a type of gland that releases its secretion through a duct, such as a digestive or sweat gland
Ground Substance (Matrix)
the intercellular material in which the cells and fibers of connective tissue are embedded
Collagen
the fiberous protein constituent of bone, cartillage, tendon
Elastin
a protein constituting the basic substance of elastic tissues
Reticulin
a protein substance that is a constituent of reticular tissue
Fibroblasts/Fibrocytes
a flat irregular braching cell of connective tissue that secretes structurally strong proteins onto the matrix between cells
Chondrocyte
a cartilage cell
Lacunae
a cavity in bone that contains cartilage or bone cells
Osteocytes
the original (mature) bone cell
Osteoblast
a new bone forming cell
Osteoclast
a cell that breaks down bone, absorbs the calcium phosphate and puts it back into the circulatory system
Canaliculi
a small canal in bone
Haversian Canal System
narrow channels that run parrallel the length of the bone and contain blood vessels and nerve cells
Muscle Fibers
a long, cylinderical, multinucleated cell containing numerous myofibrils, which is capable of contraction when stimulated
Myofibrils
muscle cell contractile subunit
Myofilaments
a contractile microfilament, composed largely of actin and myosin, within muscle
Myosin
thick filament
Actin
thin filament
sarcomere
fundamental unit of contraction in skeletal muscle; made up of repeating bands of actin and mysin
Sliding Filament Mechanism
1 ATP required for the myosin to attach to the actin, then 1 ATP required to release from it, the myosin inches its way up the actin, contracting the sarcomere
Rigor Mortis
stiff dead body, no more ATP to allow muscle movement
Tropomyosin
blocks the myosin/actin connection held together by troponin. To initiate the myosin/actin connection, calcium ions must be released, freeing the actin from the tropomyosin
Tranverse (T) Tubules
a deep invagination of the plasma membrane found in skeletal and cardia muscle cells; allows for depolarization of the membrane
Neurotransmitter
a chemical released at the axon terminal of a nueron that travels across the synaptic cleft, binds a specific receptor on the far side, and depending on the nature of the receptor, polarizes a second nueron
Motor End Plate
highly excitable region of muscle fiber plasma membrane responsible for initiation of action
Acetylcholine
first nuerotransmitter to be identified
Slow Twitch Fibers
red fibers, good oxygen supply, can hold contraction for a long time (endurance muscle)
Fast Twitch Muscle
white fibers, made to contract very quickly (speed muscle)
Tetanus
sustained forceful muscle contraction with no relaxation
Epitheleal Tissue
provides lining, isolating the inside from the outside
Herbivores
animals that feed cheifly on plants
Carnivores
animals that feed cheifly on flesh (meat) of other animals
Omnivores
an animal that eats both plants and animals
Cecum
a pouch at the begining of the large intestine that stores digested food; herbivores have larger cecums than carnivors
Larynx
the upper part of the trachea that is made up of cartilage and contains the vocal cords
Glottis
the opening at the upper part of the larynx, between the vocal cords
Epiglottis
a thin, valve like, cartilagineous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the enterance of food and drink into the larynx
Gizzard
a modified muscular pouch behind the stomach in birds, containing ingested grit to help break down food; it is the birds teeth
Crop
a pouch in the esophogous in which food is held for later digestion or for regurgitation to nestlings
Sphincter
a circulatory band of colunatry and involunatry muscle that encircles an orafice of the body
Peristalsis
the process of wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract (esophogus)that moves food towards the stomach
Chyme
the semi fluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine
Duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine
Jejunum
the middle portion of the small intestine
Ileum
the lowest part of the small intestine
Small Intestine
transports food as it is continually broken down and absorbed
Villi
one of the minute, wormlike processes on the mucous membrane of the small intestine, where they release an absorbing nutrient
Microvilli
any of the small, finger like projections of an epitheleal cell that help to absorb nutrients
Lactase
an enzyme in intestinal fluids that catalyzed the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose
Acini
the smallest secreting portion of a gland
Jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, due to an excessive accumulation of fluid within the body
Gallstone
an abnormal mass, usually of cholesterol, formed in the gallbladder or bile passages
Gluconeogenesis
the formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and the glyceron portion of fats
Obesity
the condition of being over weight (20% greater than the average weight for a person of a height and age)
Amylase
breaks down starches
Phagocytosis
acellular digestion
Incomplete Digestion
organism has one opening (mouth and anus)
Complete Digestion
complex, tube within a tube (humans)
Tendon
connects muscle to bone
Ligament
connects bone to bone
Gastric Gland
secretes HCl (stomach acid)
Gastroesophygeal Sphincter
prevents HCl from coming up out of the stomach
Cheif Cells
produce pepsin
Pepsin
digests proteins
Lacteal
in the microvillum; absorbs fats
Bile Salts
stored in the gallbladder, used to break down fat
Lymphatic System
absorbs fat (fatty acids wrapped in cholesterol)
Rumins
animals with complex digestive systems
Ulcers caused by...
helicobater