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60 Cards in this Set

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True or False

A shared derived character is a character shared by unrelated organisms occurring in different clades
False.
True or False

The more recently two species have branched from a common ancestor, the more DNA changes are expected.
False.
True or False

The molecular clock is based on the fact that all regions of the genome change at the same rate as each other.
False.
True or False

Species are always genetically uniform throughout their entire range.
False.
True or False

Habitat isolation can be an effective pre-zygotic barrier to reproduction.
True.
True or False

Reproductive isolation, hence speciation, occurs every time a species is split into geographically separated populations.
False.
True or False

An individual’s inclusive fitness is measured by the genes passed on in its own offspring and the genes passed on in the offspring of related individuals.
True.
True or False

The mammal eye is a good example of a complex organ that appeared suddenly, completely formed in the fossil record.
False.
True or False

Green algae are thought to be ancestral to land plants.
True.
True or False

In fungi, karyogamy involves the fusion of haploid nuclei in a dikaryotic cell.
True.
True or False

Reduced hybrid viability is an example of a post-zygotic barrier to reproduction between two species.
True.
True or False

The early atmosphere of earth, 3.8 billion years ago, was characterized by a thick ozone layer that blocked harmful UV radiation.
False.
True or False

In the current classification system presented in the text, Bacteria and Archaea are both lumped together in the kingdom Monera.
False.
True or False

A major mechanism for exchanging novel genetic material in bacteria is through binary fission.
False.
True or False

Elaborate courtship displays used by some bird species are an example of a post-zygotic barrier to reproduction.
False.
True or False

One distinguishing feature between Bacteria and Archaea is that a cell wall made of peptidoglycan is present in Bacteria but absent in Archaea.
True.
True or False

In higher plants, the sporophyte is the diploid phase of the life cycle.
True.
True or False

It is generally agreed among evolutionary biologist that the protists represent a monophyletic group.
False.
True or False

A ‘closed’ behavior is one that does not change with the animal’s experience.
True.
True or False

Bacteria may acquire novel genetic material through the process of transformation, the uptake of DNA from the surrounding environment.
True.
Reasons that organisms may look similar do NOT include:
a. derived similarity due to a recent common ancestor
b. convergent evolution
c. primitive similarity due to retention of a primitive trait
d. divergent evolution due to contrasting selective pressures
d. divergent evolution due to contrasting selective pressures
2. The most likely common ancestor for two organisms with DNA sequences of AGGGGGT and GGGAGGG is:
a. GGGAGGT
b. TCCCCCA
c. TGGAGGC
d. AGGTGGT
a. GGGAGGT
3. Choose the correct classification order, going from smallest to largest groups.
a. Species, genus, order, phylum, family, class, kingdom
b. Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
c. Species, genus, family, class, order, phylum, kingdom
d. Species, class, family, genus, order, phylum, kingdom
b. Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
4. An ecotype is a population or group of populations of a species that :
a. show plastic, non-genetic responses to their habitat
b. are not adapted to the local habitat
c. have genetically based adaptations to their habitat
d. are not interfertile with other populations in the same species
c. have genetically based adaptations to their habitat
5. The pollination of purple flowered coastal larkspurs, Delphinium decorum, by honeybees and the pollination of its close relative orange larkspur, D. nudicaule by hummingbirds is an example of:
a. a post-zygotic reproductive barrier between the two species
b. a temporal isolating mechanism preventing hybridization between the two species
c. a mechanical isolating mechanism preventing hybridization between the two species
d. the ease of hybridization between two different plant species
c. a mechanical isolating mechanism preventing hybridization between the two species
6. The conditions necessary for reciprocal altruism to occur in a group of organisms include:
a. benefits to the recipient must outweigh the cost to the actor
b. cheaters must be rewarded
c. the group should be temporary and unstable
d. the opportunities for altruistic acts must be rare
a. benefits to the recipient must outweigh the cost to the actor
7. Bryophytes (mosses) are restricted to relatively moist environments because:
a. their sperm lack flagella
b. they have little or no development of vascular tissue
c. they have thick cuticles covering their leaves and stems
d. they have well-developed root systems
b. they have little or no development of vascular tissue
8. A bright red dot on the underside of the bill of some sea gulls elicits chicks to raise their heads, open their beaks and emit screeching noises. The red dot is an example of:
a. an altruistic color
b. a sign stimulus
c. a signal to females choosing a male mate
d. camouflage
b. a sign stimulus
9. A spider emerging from its egg can spin a perfect web that is characteristic of its species. This is an example of:
a. a learned response
b. a sign stimulus
c. an industrious nature
d. a fixed action pattern
d. a fixed action pattern
10. There are many differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic life forms. One difference is that prokaryotes lack ____________, while eukaryotes have this feature.
a. membrane bound organelles
b. chromosomes
c. DNA replication
d. ribosomes
a. membrane bound organelles
11. Steps thought to be essential to the beginning of life on earth include:
a. the formation of a DNA-ribosome complex for making proteins
b. the ingestion of bacteria into early cell-like structures
c. the formation of simple carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleic acids from molecules present in a primitive atmosphere
d. the presence of the enzymes necessary for aerobic respiration
c. the formation of simple carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleic acids from molecules present in a primitive atmosphere
12. Prokaryotes are more metabolically diverse than are eukaryotes. One nutritional mode present in prokaryotes that is missing in eukaryotes is:
a. photoautotrophy
b. chemoautotrophy
c. chemoheterotrophy
d. aerobic respiration
b. chemoautotrophy
13. The data in the graph above comes from an experiment where clams were dropped onto rocks from different heights above the ground. At what height would optimal foraging theory predict that a gull that fed on these clams should fly in order to drop the clam and maximize its energy return?
a. 5 meters
b. 1 meter
c. 8 meters
d. 11 meters
GRAPH NOT INCLUDED
d. 11 meters
14. Evolutionary advances seen in eukaryotic protists that are not present in prokaryotes include:
a. circular DNA
b. coloniality and multicellularity
c. vascular systems and roots
d. photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
b. coloniality and multicellularity
15. A dilute, primordial soup containing compounds such as adenine and amino acids may not have provided the level of concentration needed to form more complex building blocks of life. Possible sites where this could have happened do NOT include:
a. clay particles with charged surfaces
b. small, temporary ponds on rocky shores
c. deep sea hydrothermal vents
d. ancient inland seas
d. ancient inland seas
16. Viruses are characterized by having:
a. only DNA
b. only RNA
c. a protein coat (capsid)
d. ribosomes
c. a protein coat (capsid)
17. Selective pressures that faced early land plants included:
a. the threat of desiccation
b. high levels of herbivory
c. high levels of competition
d. low levels of carbon dioxide
a. the threat of desiccation
18. One member of a group acts in such a way as to harm another individual and benefit it. This behavior is classified as:
a. altruistic
b. selfish
c. cooperative
d. spiteful
b. selfish
19. A trait shared by all plants is the alternation of generations. In this life cycle:
a. a haploid sporophytic phase alternates with a diploid gametophytic phase
b. a diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores through meiosis
c. a haploid gametophyte produces haploid gametes through meiosis
d. a diploid sporophyte produces haploid gametes through meiosis
b. a diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores through meiosis
20. In early land plants like bryophytes (mosses) the ________ is the dominant phase of the life cycle, while the ________ is the non-dominant phase.
a. sporophyte; gametophyte
b. diploid; haploid
c. gametophyte; sporophyte
d. flowering phase; vegetative phase
c. gametophyte; sporophyte
taxonomy
N. the naming and classification of species
phylogeny
G. the evolutionary history of groups of organisms
clade
Q. an ancestral species and all of its descendents
homologous structure
T. a structure shared due to common ancestry
analogous structure
L. a structure shared due to similar use, not ancestry
parsimony
A. the simplest explanation for an observation
anagenesis
B. a series of small changes in a species over long time periods that leads to a new species
cladogenesis
M. the budding of one or more new species from a parental species
allopatric speciation
S. geographically separated populations of a species that differentiate into different species
sympatric speciation
C. geographically overlapping populations of a species that differentiate into different species
allopolyploid
D. multiple copies of chromosomes due to mating between different species
autopolyploid
R. multiple copies of chromosomes due meiotic errors within the same species
BR - C > 0
E. Hamilton’s rule, the conditions necessary for altruistic behavior to spread in a population
Haplo-diploidy
F. A genetic system where one sex is haploid and the other is diploid
punctuated equilibrium
J. rapid changes in speciation are followed by long periods of little change
exaptation
H. evolutionary novelties that arise by changes in existing structures modified for new functions
allometric growth
P. different rates of growth in different parts of a body or body structure
heterochrony
I. an evolutionary change in the rate or timing of development
mycorrhizae
K. a fungal mutualist with the roots of land plants
kinesis
O. change in activity rate in response to a stimulus