Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
True or False

Organisms that live in a homogenous abiotic environment but that cooperate to avoid being eaten by predators would likely show a random pattern of dispersion.
False.
True or False

A density-dependent growth regulator of animal populations would be a decrease in clutch size.
True.
True or False

The drought-induced drying of savanna grass for an insect that feeds on grass sap is an example of a density-independent population regulator.
True.
True or False

If the niches of two species are very similar interspecific competition will be mild.
False.
True or False

In the logistic model, a smaller r will cause a faster increase in the size of a population to a lower carrying capacity (K).
False.
True or False

A population of mice that has grown to a population size of 2,400 individuals in an ecosystem that will support 1,800 mice will most likely continue to have a birth rate that equals the death rate.
False.
True or False

Flounder look like the sea floor. This is an example of cryptic coloration.
True.
True or False

A harmless frog that resembles a poisonous frog is an example of Batesian mimicry.
True.
True or False

Certain species of acacia trees in Central and South America have hollow thorns that house stinging ants, which attack anything that touches the tree. The ants feed on nutrients produced by the acacias. This is an example of competitive exclusion.
False.
True or False

A population that contains more pre-reproductive than reproductive individuals is likely to grow rapidly in the future.
True.
True or False

In Paine's study of the intertidal zone on the coast of Washington State, he found that the presence of a keystone predator maintained high community diversity.
True.
True or False

The current view of succession is that disturbance and non-equilibrium are inevitable.
True.
True or False

The main decomposers in an ecosystem are fungi and prokaryotes.
True.
True or False

In an ecosystem, the number of primary producers is always greater than the number of primary consumers.
False.
True or False

The presence of a species in a particular place, and its ability to reproduce there, implies that the species dispersed to that location from elsewhere.
False.
True or False

The individualistic hypothesis views a community as the chance assemblage of organisms with similar abiotic needs.
True.
True or False

Below the photic zone of the ocean, food chains are detritus-based.
True.
True or False

A savanna is characterized by long, cold winters and abundant precipitation throughout the year.
False.
True or False

The chance of death is roughly constant over all ages for a population with a Type II survivorship curve.
True.
True or False

Most of the solar energy that reaches Earth is used by plants for photosynthesis.
False.
What is:

population
interacting group of individuals of a single type
What is:

r
the population growth rate
What is:

K
the carrying capacity of the environment
What is:

species richness
the number of species in a community
What is:

species diversity
a combination of the number of species and the distribution of individuals among them in a community
What is:

species evenness
the distribution of individuals among species in a community
What is:

commensalism
an interaction that benefits one species but does not affect the other species
What is:

predation
an interaction that benefits one species and negatively affects the other species
What is:

competition
an interaction that negatively affects both species
What is:

succession
a directional, cumulative change in the species occupying a community
What is:

keystone species
species that exert a strong control on community structure due to their ecological niche
what is:

plankton
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of water bodies
What is:

character displacement
evolution of different traits so competing species can occupy different niches within the same habitat
What is:

aposematic coloration
bold coloration in harmful species
What is:

primary producer
a photosynthetic plant
What is:

detritivore
an organism that feeds on dead plants and animals
What is:

primary consumer
an herbivore
What is:

resource partitioning
restriction of competing species to separate habitats
What is:

NPP
The rate at which producers convert solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds, minus that lost in respiration
What is:

benthic zone
substrate at the bottom of a body of water
In most cases, the two major climatic factors affecting the distribution of organisms are
A. predators and parasites
B. water and temperature
C. wind and water
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes of about 30° north and south?
A. Earth is tilted on its axis
B. Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface at about 30° north and south
C. Warm air rises at about 30° north and south and spreads toward the poles and the equator
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
The "rain shadow" caused by mountain ranges is due to
A. the scarcity of rain on the lee side and adjacent lowlands compared with the windward side
B. the dark green vegetation that grows on the lee side
C. the shadow cast by the mist and clouds that hover above the crest of the mountains
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
A
Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. This makes the lake inhospitable to fish. Why?
A. It reduces the penetration of light into the lake, which results in the death of all the fish.
B. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water.
C. Nutrient input to a lake poisons the organisms that fish eat.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
Which one of the following pairs of biomes are characterized by relatively low biological diversity)?
A. tundra and grassland
B. tundra and desert
C. desert and deciduous forest
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
Chimpanzees have a relatively low birth rate. They take good care of their young, and most chimps live a long life. The chimp survivorship curve would be classified as a
A. type I curve
B. type II curve
C. type III curve
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
A
Which of the following populations probably exhibits exponential growth?
A. a population of deer in an area with few palatable food plants
B. a redwood tree population in a forest
C. a fruit fly population that recently arrived on a lush ocean island inhabited only by plants
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
C
Herring gulls fiercely defend the areas around their nests. Within the colony they would show a _______ dispersion pattern.
A. clumped
B. uniform
C. density-independent
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
In a population at its carrying capacity, thousands of eggs and hundreds of tadpoles are produced by a single pair of frogs. On average, about how many offspring per pair will live to reproduce the next year?
A. 100
B. 0
C. 2
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
C
r-selected species often have which of the following traits?
A. Few offspring per reproductive bout
B. Careful tending of young for extended periods
C. Delayed sexual maturation
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
E
Which one of the following would most likely be a density-independent factor limiting population growth?
A. daily temperature extremes
B. food availability
C. parasites
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
A
The cyclic growth exhibited by populations of snowshoe hares in the North American taiga most likely results from
A. predation by lynx
B. fluctuations in the hare's food resources
C. predation by lynx and fluctuations in the hare's food resources
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
C
Two species of doves live in a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea. 14 islands have one species, 6 have the other, and none has both. The two species of birds could
A. have similar niches
B. have different niches
C. have a mutualistic relationship
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
A
Under which of the following circumstances would interspecific competition be most obvious?
A. among species whose trophic levels are different
B. in the presence of a keystone predator
C. when resources are most abundant
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
E
The poison-arrow frogs of tropical America are all brightly colored with similar patterns. Each species is distasteful and possesses toxic skin secretions. This is an example of
A. Batesian mimicry
B. Müllerian mimicry
C. parasitism
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The spider occupies the trophic level(s) of
A. primary and secondary consumers
B. a secondary consumer
C. a primary consumer
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B
In the transition from each trophic level to the next trophic level, there is about a
A. 80–95% loss of energy
B. 80–95% gain of energy
C. 5–20% loss of energy
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
A
Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?
A. the presence of algae
B. dead organic matter
C. low oxygen level
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
A
Which of these events stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?
A. the Industrial Revolution
B. the advent of agriculture
C. the discovery of antibiotics
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
D
As the number of established species on an island
A. decreases, colonizing success also decreases
B. increases, colonizing success also decreases
C. increases, colonizing success also increases
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
B