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94 Cards in this Set

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6 kinds of proteins
-RECEPTOR PROTEINS- WERE SIGNAL MOLECULES ATTACH
-ENZYMATIC PROTEINS
-CHANNEL PROTEINS
-CARRIER PROTEINS
-RECONIGITION PROTEINS- IMMUNE SYSTEMS
-ADHESION PROTEINS
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
MOVEMENT FROM HIGH TO LOW CONCENTRATION ( NO ENERGY IS REQUIRED + THE RATE DEPENDS ON TEMP, MOLECULES SIZE + CONCENTRATION
DIFFUSION
PASSIVE MOVEMENT OF OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, ETHANOL, ITS SMALL FAT SOLUBLE COMPOUND THROUGH THE PHOSPHOLIPIDS LAYERS
FACILITATED TRANSPORT
PASSIVE MOVEMENT OF IONS + SMALL POLAR COVALENT COMPOUNDS THROUGH THE CHANNEL + CARRIER PROTEINS
OSMOSIS
PASSIVE MOVEMENT OF WATER ACROSS A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
ISOTONIC SOLUTION
SOME CONCENTRATION OF WATER INSIDE + OUTSIDE THE CELL
HYPERTONIC SOLUTION
HIGHER CONCENTRATION OF WATER OUTSIDE THAN IN, CAUSING IT TO SWELL
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
MOVEMENT OF SELECT IONS (Ca++,Na+, K+) +SMALL POLAR COVALENT COMPOUNDS ACROSS MEMBRANE AGAINST THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT THROUGH CARRIER PROTEINS
ENDOCYTOSIS
OCCURS WHEN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE ENGULFS SUBSTANCES
PHAGOCYTOSIS
ENGULFING SOLID SUBSTANCE INTO FOOD VACULES
PINOCYTOSIS
ENGULFING LIQUID DROPLETS INTO VESICLES. IT MAY BE RECEPTOR MEDIATED USING RECEPTOR PROTEINS
EXOCYTOSIS
WHEN LARGE COMPOUNDS ARE DISCHARGED OUT OF CELS FROM VESICLES PROVIDED BY THE GOLGI BODIES
CELL WALL
NONLIVING SEMIRIGID SECRETED LAYER OUTSIDE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE THAT PROVIDES PROTECTION + SUPPORT FOR PLANTS, ALGAE + FUNGI CELLS
PRIMARY CELL WALL
THIN FLEXIBLE LAYERS COMPOSED OF CELLOSE FOUND IN ALL PLANTS CELL
PITS
HOLES THROUGH WALL AROUND PLASMO DESMATA ( STRANDS OF CYTOPLASM THAT CONNECT ADJACENT CELLS
MIDDLE LAMELLA
PECTIN LAYER THAT GLUES ADJACENT PRIMARY CELL WALLS TOGETHER IN PLANTS
KILO CALORIE
(NUTRIONAL CALORIE) 1000
USED TO MEASURE ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR AN ORGANISM
(1 CALORIE= HEAT REQUIRED TO RAISE 1 GRAM OF WATER 1C
NEEDS FOR WOMEN AND MEN
WOMEN= 1800-2000 KCAL/DAY
MEN= 2200-2500 KCAL/DAY
ATP UNITS
USED TO MEASURE ENERGY WITHIN CELLS
1ST LIMITATION ON METABOLISM
(LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS)
1) ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED, ONLY CHANGED IN FORM
2ND LIMITATION ON METABOLISM
2) EVERY ENERGY TRANSFORMATION RESULTS IN A LOSS OF USABLE ENERGY
(NOT A LOSS IN TOTAL ENERGY)
ANABOLISM IN AUTOTROPHS
1)ORGANISMS GET ALL ENERGY DIRECTLY FROM THE ENVIROMENT
2)MOST AUTOTROPHS(PLANTS+ALGAE) CAPTIVE SUNLIGHT USING A PROCESS CALLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS WHICH OCCURS IN CHLOROPLAST
LIGHT REACTION
OCCURS IN THE GRANA OF THE CHLOROPLAST+REQUIRES VISIBLE LIGHT.
PHOTOSYSTEMS
PACKETS OF 200-300 PIGMENT MOLECULES
PHOTOSYSTEM I
CONTAINING CHLOROPHYLL A GREEN PIGMENT THAT ABSORBS RED,VIOLET+BLUE LIGHT. CHLOROPHYLL A IS THE ONLY PIGMENT IN PLANTS THAT CAN DIRECTLY CONVERT LIGHT ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY
PHOTSYSTEM II
CONTAINING 80 PERCENT CHLOROPHYLL B GREEN PIGAMENTTHAT ABSORB MOSTLY BLUE LIGHT + 20 PERCENT CAROTENOIDS(YELLOW, ORANGE+ RED PIGMENTS THAT ABSORB LIGHT
cyclic photophosphorylation
primitive light reactions requring photosystem I that produces only ATP.
Example
needed produced

light
photosystem I
ADP+P ATP
noncyclic photophoshorylation
normal pathway requring photosystoms I+II that produces ATP, NADPH + oxygen gas. this process must occur 6 times to run the dark reaction once
extra info
oxygen gas makes 21% of the present atmosphere + is to tally renewed by plants
+ algae every 2000 years. It combines with itself to form ozone (O3) which protects the earth from ultra violet radiation
dark reaction
occurs in the strama of the chloroplast + does not require light
C3 synthesis
carbon dioxide in the air is captured by Ru BP carboxylase + is used to make PGAL
PGAL
the buildong block for all other organic compounds in the cell
table
1 PGAL= worth 46 ATP
1 glucose (2PGAL)=92 ATP
starch(1,000Glucose)=92,000ATP
cellulose (10,000gluclose)= 920,000 ATP
more info
on hot days the stroma (opening on plant leave that let CO2 in +O2 out) close to prevent waterloss without CO2, C3 synthesis stops
c4 synthesis
used by 20% of all plants to solve this problem. carbon dioxide in the air is captured by pepcarboxylase + used to make oxaloacetate. on hot days when the stomata close, oxalocetate is convented back into CO2 to keep synthesis going.
more info on C3 and c4 synthesis
in grasses + legumes C4 + C# synthesis occur in diffrent cells. in cacti + pineapples they occur in diffrent cells + stromata are only open at night. C4 synthesis occur in 80% of all florida plants, but is expensive in cool climates, since 2 ATP are needed to store each CO2
Anabolism in heterotrophs
heterotrophs must get their energy + nutrients to perform. large compounds are digested into their basic units, absorbed + reassembled into new compounds
table animals
Starch > gluclose-gylcogen/
oil>glycerol+fatty acid> fat/ plant protein>amino acids> animal proteins
Holotrophs
kill + eat other organisms (animals + protozono)
parasite
absorb nutrients from a living host + provide nothing in return(in animals, protozans, fungi, bacteria
suprotrophs
decay, dead organisms(fungi, bacteria)
digestion
is a hydroylsis reation + is not part of cellur respiration because no usable energy is released
glycolysis
occurs in the cytoplasm + does not require oxygen
aerobic respiration
occurs in the mitochondria + requires oxygen
electron transport train
occurs in the cristae, makes ATP by chemiosmosis using ATP synthesis
table
polysachridas- dissachridas- monosachridas
triglycerides> fatty acids + glycerol
proteins > peptide chains > amino acids
Glycolysis + Aerobic respiration
should release 38 ATP in usable from each gluclose. 39% effincey with the remaining lost as heat. kidney, liver + heart cells get 38 ATP, but brain, muscles + most other cells get only 36 ATP. this is because the 2 NADH (worth 6 ATP) produced by glycolysis must transfer their H+ and electrons to either NAD+ FAD inside the mitochondria
(NADH=6ATP, 2FADH2= 4ATP) without oxygen NADH + FADH2 cannot be chased in at the electron transport chain, and aerobic respiration stops
anerobic respiration
occurs in the cytoplasm + does not require oxygen

the main goal is to free up NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
lactate fermantion
occurs in animal muscle cells when no oxygen is present
glycolysis + lactate fermentation
release 2 ATP in usable form from each gluclose (2% efficent) most of the energy is lost as heat
symptoms of lacatate buildup
sweating
muscle fatigue
muscle cramps
rigor mortis
alcoholic fermantation
occurs in prokarotic cells + yeast when no oxygen is present
glycolysis + alcoholic fermantion
release 2 ATP in usable form from each glucose (beer & wine)
alternate fuels for aerobic respiration
even though other compounds can be used for food for fuel,the brain can only use gluclose, + uses about 2/3 of free blood gluclose
order of fuel consumption during starvation in animals
1)free glucose
2)glycogen( most used 1/2
hours of exercise-12 hours with out exercise)
3)fat (78%)
4)proteins (21%)
factors that slow down or stop aerobic respiration
A)lack of oxygen
B)lack of iron
C)lack of vitamin B
D)lack of fuel
E)lack of optimum
F)presence of inhibator
G)conditions that denature proteins
H)mutagenic agents
Information storage
story of DNA in the chromosomes of the nucleus. the set of instructions for gene language, called the genetic code, is the same for all living cells
4 letters
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine + thymine (nitrogen bases in the nucleotides). they always pair up in the DNA as A-t and C-G.
64 words (triplets)
names for amino acids. Each triplet consists of 3 adjacent letter, and words cannot overlap.the code is degenrate because there are 64 words but only 20 amino acids more important amino acids have synonym names
valine
CAA, CAC, CAT, CAG
An initiator triplet
(TAC) acts like a capital letter in a sentence (starting triplet)
terminator triplet
(ATT, ATC, ACT) acts like a period in a sentence (ending triplet)
more info
sentence starts with an inhibator triplet, ends with a terminator triplet, and may haveany number of naming triplets, in any order in between each sentence called a ---------, is the set of instructions on how to make particular protein
more info
23 pairs of chromosomes house 30,000 genes in each human cell. the DNA is coiled+wrapped around histones to form nucleosomes to conserve space in cells. a single human nucleus 5mm wide, contains about 2mm of DNA. although everybody cell has a full set of genes only certain genes are allowed to function in each tissue
transcription
story of how messenger RNA is formed to send instructions into the cytoplasm
RNA polymerase
attaches to a promoter site on the DNA + the Z strand seprate
more info
strand mRNA form along the gene with mirror image words called codons. a completed mRNA strand begin with an inititator codon, ends with a terminator codon, + lists the primary structure of a protein
DNA Triplets
mRNA
DNA (TAC,AAG,GGC,CAT,ACT
mRNA (AUG,UUC,CCG,GUA,UGA
mRNA in eukuryotic cells
about 15% of the mRNA strand has usable code (sections called exons)introns (unused parts) are cut out + the exons are spliced together by ribozymes.If different exons are saved different proteins can be made from the same gene it is estimated that each human gene makes at least 3 different proteins
edited mRNA
strands move out through a pore in the nuclear membrane into the ctyoplasm and the Z DNA strands zip back together along the gene
translation
story of how a protein is formed by a ribosome with the help of transfer RNA (TRNA)
ribosome makeup
is made of 2 subunits composed of 60% ribosomed RNA (TRNA) + 40% protein. the ribosome assembles around the initator codan on the mRNA strand, the only place it can attach
2nd part of translation
it then moves down the mRNA reading one word at a time at a rate of 15 codons per second
3rd part of translation
+ RNA brings in the proper amino acids to be added to the protein chain
4th part of tranlation
when the ribosome reads the terminator codon the protein is released + automatically assumes this protein is released automatically assumes its proper shape because of hydrogen bonding. an average of 400 amino acids takes about 20 minutes to make
5th part of translation
groups of 30-40 ribosomes (polyribosomes) may read the mRNA one after another at the same time
control of protein synthesis
to gain full control over a cell, DNA must be able to create, limit +
destroy enzymes
prokaryotic cells control enzymes production by making
1.) Inhibitors-to destroy existing enzymes
2.) Enzymes to destroy the mRNA (by removing the initiator codon)to prevent new enzymes from forming
exons
strands that have usable code
introns
unused parts of mRNA
repressor proteins
to prevent the formation of new mRNA
Eukaryotic cell controls
DNA methylation
(attachment of CH3 to DNA nitrogen bases) permanently turns off genes
Eukaryotic cell controls
histone acetylation
attachment of COCH3 to amino acids in a nucleosome. temporally stops gene function, loosening nucleosomes. promotes transcription
Eukaryotic cell controls
enhancers
cause folding of the DNA + activation of promoter sites
mutations
mistakes that form abnormal protein since most mutationd are harmful, DNA repair enymes try to eliminate them. the 1% that are harmless or benefical provide the basis for evolution.
things that cause mutations, major mutagens
1.)radiation.)xrays, uv radiation, radioactivity
2.)organic compounds: nicotine, alcohol, anabolic steroids, pesticide, asbestos, caffeine, thalidomide
oncogenes
growth, controls genes that malfunction disrupting homeostasis, causing cancer
apoptosis
programmed cell death
angiogenesis
forms new blood cells to feed the tumor
metastsis
spreading to rest of body
cancer treatment
surgery, radation, chemotherapy, cancer vaccines, anti-angiogenesis drugs
pectin
A substance in the middle lamella that cements adjoining plant cells together.
heterotrophs
Organisms that obtain their nutrition by breaking down organic molecules in foods; include animals and fungi.