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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Def: A complex of proteins and DNA. (102)
Def: a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope. (102)
Nuclear lamina
True or false?
The nucleus contains the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
False; some genes are located in the mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What two materials make up ribosomes? (102)
Protein and ribosomal RNA
What's the difference between free ribosomes and bound ribosomes?
Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol and produce proteins that are used within the cytosol. Bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope, and make proteins that are destined either for insertion into membranes, for packaging within organelles such as lysosomes, or for secretion.
Def: Flattenedmembranous sacs that make up the Golgi apparatus. (105)
What are the two poles of a Golgi sac? (105)
a)the cis face, which receives vesicles
b)the trans face, which ships vesicles
Def: a process used by the hydrolytic enzymes in lysosomes to recyle the cell's own organic material. (107)
What are the three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton, and what are their functions? (113)
a)Microtubules: cell motility, act as "girders" in cell shape, organelle movements.
b)Microfilaments: muscle contraction, cell division, maintenance of cell shape, act as "steel cables"
c)Intermediate filaments: anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
What protein subunits make up microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments? (113)
Microtubules - tubulin
Microfilaments - actin
Intermediate filaments - several types of the keratin family
What are the 3 main types of intercellular junctions? (120)
a)tight junctions
c)gap junctions
What's the main function of tight junctions? (121)
Tight junctions bind neighbouring cells very tightly together to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across epithelial cells.
What's the main function of desmosomes? (121)
The main function of desmosomes is to anchor cells together into strong sheets, acting as rivets.
What's the main function of gap junctions? (121)
The main function of gap junctions is to provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell.
Def: A molecule that has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region. (124)
Aphipathic molecule
Why must cell membranes be fluid to work properly? (127)
To retain their permissive permiability.
Why is cholesterol so crucial to the cell membrane? (127)
Cholesterol acts as a "temperature buffer", resisting changes in membrane fluidity that are caused by temperature changes.
True or false? Saturated hydrocarbon tails have kinks that keep the molecules from packing together, enhancing membrane fluidity. (126)
False; It is unsaturated hydrocarbon tails that do so.
Name 6 functions performed by proteins of the plasma membrane. (128)
b)enzymatic activity
c)signal transduction
d)cell-cell recognition
e)intercellular joining
f)attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
What's the difference between integral proteins and peripheral proteins? (128)
Integral proteins span the membrane, while peripheral proteins remain on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, sometimes attaching to the integral proteins.
Name 5 particles or molecules that require the cell's help crossing the membrane. (131)
b)polar molecules
e)charged atoms
How does an animal cell react to an environment that has
a)more solute
b)less solute
a) It is in a hypertonic environment, and will shrivel and die.
b)It is in an area that is hypotonic, and will burst.
Def: An organelle that aids in osmoregulation in cells with cell walls. (132)
Contractile vacuole
Def: Very firm, full of water. (132)
Def: Limp, lacking water. (133)
Def: When cells aid polar molecules and ions in diffusion with integral transport porteins. (133)
Facilitated diffusion
Name two types of transport proteins that carry out passive diffusion. (134)
a)channel protein
b)carrier portein
What are the 6 steps in the sodium-potassium pump cycle? (135)
1)Cytoplasmic sodium binds to the pump.
2)This binding stimulates phosphorylation by ATP.
3)Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its conformation, resulting in the expulsion of the sodium.
4)Extracellular potassium binds to the protein, triggering the rrelease of the phosphate group.
5)The loss of the phosphate restores the protein's original conformation.
6)The potassium is released and the sodium sites are receptive again.
What is the membrane potential? (135)
-50 to -200 millivolts
Def: A transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane. (136)
Electrogenic pump
Def: The main electrogenic pump of plants, fungi, and bacteria. (136)
Proton pump
Def: The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient. (136)
Def: a molecule that binds specifially to a receptor site of another molecule. (137)
What technique is used by the cell to acquire bulk quantaties of a specific substance? (138)
Receptor-mediated endocytosis