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70 Cards in this Set

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Fungi
(Importance)
-Most important orgamisms; ecological and economic roles
-powerful enzymes that breakdown organic substances.
-Provide numerous drugs: Penicillin and other antibiotics.
Fungi
(Auto-or-heterotrophic?)
-Heterotrophic; animal-like
Growth Form
mostly multicellular
Fungi Walls and description
Chitin-hardshells and rigid. Unable to engulf small microorganisms.
Habitat
Terrestrial and Aquatic
Movement
Chytrids
Life cycle
zygotic meiosis
Mycorrhizae
Vascular plant species form mutually beneficial associations.
Hyphae
Fungal filaments that grow rapidly
Mycellium
Mass of hyphae
Septa
crosswalls
Aseptate
lacking hyphae, or crosswalls.
coenocytic
hyphae containing septa, or crosswalls.
How they feed?
Feed by secreting enzymes, called exozymes, onto a food source and then absord the smaller molecules that are left.
Absorb where?
absorb mostly at or near the growing tips of their hyphae.
Saprophytes or saprositic
absorb non-living materials
Parasites or parasitic
absorb living materials
Glycogen in fungi
primary storage
Lipids in fungi
important storage function.
Rhizoids
anchor some fungi to the substrate.
Haustoria
-absord nourishment directly form cells of other organisms
-specialized hyphae in parasitic fungi
Fungi reproduction
Asexually and sexually
Sporangia
most common method of asexual reproduction
Sporangiophore
a branch bearing one or more sporangia, or hollow structure.
Conidia
an asexual fungal spore
conidiogenous cells
hyphal cells
Plasmogamy
fusion of protoplasts
Karyogamy
Fusion of nuclei; or marriage of the nuts
dikaryon
"Two nuclei"
endomycorrhizae
penetrate plant root cells
ectomycorrihizae
surround the root tip
Zygomycota
(parasitic,saprositic, or both)
parasitic and saprositic
Zygomycota hyphae
coenocytic, or having septa.
Life cycle
1N
Stolons
arching hyphae
zygospores
formation of sexually produced resting spores
zygosporangia
thick-walled structure that zygospores develop in.
heterothallic
+ and - strains for sexual reproduction
homothallic
self-fertile species.
septate
divided by crosswalls
Ascomycota growth form
unicellular or filamentous
Ascomycota reproduction
Asexually
how do they produce spores?
produce spores externally as conidia.
conidiophore
hypha on which one or more conidia are produced.
ascus
sac-like structure
ascospores
spore produced within an ascus
hymenium
layer of asci on an ascoma
ascoma or ascocarp
complex structure composed of tightly interwoven hyphae.
crozier
hooked tip
dikaryotic
contain two compatible haploid nuclei.
basidium
club-shaped spore producing structure always 4 spores
basidiophore
1N spores
doliphore
-more regulation
-barrel or doughnut shaped margin
clamp connection
ensures that each cell of the hypha will contain two dissimilar nuclei.
sterigma
connect the basidiophores to the club
spermatia
sticky,unicellulate cells
perphyses
hold droplets of sugary, sweet-smelling nectar.
spermogonia
structure that produces spermatia in Rusts
heteroecious
requires two hosts to complete life cycles
autoecious
require only one host
aeciospores
spore of Rust fungi. n+n. carried to the wheat
urediniospores
red unicellular spore
teliospores
dikaryotic two-celled
budding and occurs in what fungus
production of small outgrowth
-common reproduction in yeast
lichen
symbiosis-living together
Foliose
leafy
fruticose
erect and branched;shrubby
crustose
encrusted
mycobiont
fungal component of lichen
photobiont
photosynthetic component of lichen