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27 Cards in this Set

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Describe the five steps that make the Scientific Process
Observations, "non-trivial" question, hypotheses, predictions, and test the prediction (the prediction is either tested true or rejected).
List the six major themes in biology.
1. The chemical nature of living things
2. Flow of energy through biological systems
3. Structure and organization of living things
4. Flow, expansion, and modification of genetic information
5. Centeral paradigm of biology: Evolution through natural selection
6. The ecology of the biosphere
Define taxonomy
The classification of organisms. (KPCOFGS & Common Name) Also important is the shared common descent.
Who is Carolus Linnaeus?
He is the swedish naturalist who developed the modern system of classification.
How many amino acids are there in the Universe?
20
What is an isotope?
An isotope is the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
What type of bond does water have?
Hydrogen bond
Define Hydrocarbon?
Only carbons bonded to hydrogen.
Define Isomers?
Same molecular formula but dfferent structure
What is the structure of a monosaccharide
there are 3-7 carbons
Disaccharide
composed of two monomers
Hydrolosis
Splitting apart a with the addition of water
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
What are the five most common occuring elements in the universe?
O, C, N, H, He
Name the four organic compounds and one inorganic compound.
Inorganic:
Water
Organic:
Carbohydrates
Lipids (fats)
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Understand the pH Scale
Acids are lower than 7
7 is neutral
Bases are higher than 7
What is ATP and what is it used for?
(Adenosine triphosphate) Is the energy that is required for many chemical reactions such as division of cells and replication of DNA.
Describe a closed system vs. and open system
Closed: No matter is exchanged with outside enviroment (Think Thermos)
Open: Systems exchange matter with outside enviroment (Think Cells)
First law of thermal dynamics
Total energy remains the same. Transformations may occur but energy remains the same.
Second law of thermal dynamics
Heat can only be transfered from hold objects to cold objects. Free Energy is minimized and entropy is maximized
Entropy
The measure of the degree of disorder
Free energy
a system that has a capacity to do work at a constent temprature and pressure.
what is the unit for heat?
calorie
What is a cataylst?
Any inorganic substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being consumed in the reaction.
What is an enzyme and how is it different from a cataylst?
An enzyme is organic cataylst that is usually a protein. It is also more powerful, display evoluntionary plasticity, and highly specific
What do cataylsts not alter?
They do not alter the direction of the reaction, the final equilibrium point of the reaction, and amount of free energy change of the reaction.