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79 Cards in this Set

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A measure of how low blood sugar changes when you eat carbohydrates.
Glycemic Index
A lipid having three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol backbone. They are the body's most abundant lipids and richest energy source. Compared to complex carbohyrdates, they yield more than twice as much energy, gram for gram, when they are broken down.
The trans fatty acids are _________ or ______ ________.
"hydrogenated" or partially saturated
What is the general rule of thumb?
"White" carbs, such as potatoes, rice, flour, bread are not good. They are high glycemic index.
Carbs that you only need to worry about.
Net carbs
What are the functions of lipids?
1. Concentrated energy source (e.g. gram for gram more energy than carbohydrate but it's also more calories).
2. Structural
3. Hormones
4. Insulation
What is the overall chemistry of lipids?
They are all hydrophobic.
Fatty acid chains saturated with carbon. The chain is straight. Most are solid at room temperature. These are fats we want to avoid. Least healthy. Examples?
Saturated fats; e.g. butter, lard, steak, animal fats.
One spot in chain where hydrogen is missing. Chain are bent; they can't pack tightly in a solid form. Examples? Considered the healthy option.
Monounsaturated fats; e.g. olive oils, peanut oil, sesame oiil, canola oil, avocado.
More than one place its missing. Oils/liquids are chain bent. They are "okay" for health.
Polyunsaturated fats; e.g. vegetable oil, corn oil, sofflower oil.
Human made; not naturally occuring in food. Created by starting with polyunsaturated fats and adding hydrogens to oil. What three things also happen?
Trans fat
1. Makes it solid
2. Increases shelf life/fresher
3. It can change the taste (i.e. McDonalds fries).
The main components of cell membranes; has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic "head" with a phosphate group- a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms- and another polar group.
Components of membranes and precursors of steroid hormones and other vital molecules; they are among the lipids that have no fatty acid tails and have four fused-together carbon rings. Examples?
Steroids; e,g, sex hormones, vitamin D, anabolic sterols
Made in the liver. Came from an animal = has ________.
Cholesterol moves in your blood. What's the problem? And what are the two main carriers?
Problem: It's hydrophobic. Carriers transport cholesterol in blood. Two main carriers are HDL & LDL.
Good. Carries cholesterol from cells in body TO the liver; gets rid of cholesterol.
Bad. Carries cholesterol from liver to the cells in body, then deposits some in the arteries, which leads to clogged arteries and high blood pressure.
Saturated fats _________ LDL.
Monounsaturated fats _________ LDL- healthy.
Trans fats _______ LDL AND ______ HDL- no benefits!
increase LDL and lower HDL
Fiber _______ LDL.
Exercise _________ HDL.
Moderation consumption of alcohol _______ HDL.
Smoking ________ HDL.
A lot carb diet is ____________ and ___________.
high in HDL and low in blood triglycerides
One class of experimental drugs, called _______, dramatically reduced the amount of "bad" (LDL) cholesterol carried in the blood. It interrupts the metabolic pathway in the liver that creates cholesterol. It can lower a person's LDL by up to 60% & triglycerides by 25%.
In _______ ______ _______, a section of a large vessel taken from the chest is stitched to the aorta and to the coronary artery below the affected region.
Coronary bypass surgery
In ______ ________, laser beams vaporize the plaques.
laser angioplasty
In ______ _________, a small balloon is inflated inside a blocked artery to flatten a plaque and increase the artery's diameter.
balloon angioplasty
ATP is a _________.
Small organic compound with a sugar, at least one phosphate group, and a base. Purpose: They store/transfer/express genetic information.
ATP has ____ phosphate groups attached to its sugar. ATP can readily transfer a phosphate group to many other molecules in the cell, providing the acceptor molecules with the energy they need to enter into a reaction.
Nucleic acid which contains the guar deoxyribose and consists of two strands of nucleotides, twisted together in a double helix.
Usually a single strand of nucleotides.
Proteins are polymers of _____ ____.
amino acids
Proteins are ________ of weight of your tissue.
Consists of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids.
When peptide bonds joinn three or more amino acids, we have a _____ ____. The backbone of each chain incorporates nitrogen atoms in this regular pattern:
polypeptide chain; -N-C-C-N-C-C-
What are the different classes of protein?
1. Structural (e.g. collagen)
2. Some hormones
3. Involves in transport
4. Antibodies
5. Enzymes
____ amino acids are made by your body, ____ come in our food, which are called "______ _____ _____."
10; 10; "essential amino acids"
Speed up or catalyze chemical reactions. Nearly all of them are proteins.
An enzyme has at least one _____ _____, a surface crevice where the enzymen and a substrate interact. This is where the substrate binds.
active site
Any substance that enters a reaction.
________ is converted into ______.
Substrate is converted into product.
An orderly sequence of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells maintain, increase, or decrease the concentrations of particular substances.
Metabolic pathway
The 3d shape of a protein will change if what two things happen?
1. Change amino acid sequence
2. Environment changes
A cell's membranes consist mostly of ________, which are arranged in a bilayer.
Boundary of cell. Can let certain things in and out. Regulates inside of cell as to what can get in.
Cell membrane
What is the cell membrane made of (four things)?
1. Phospholipids
2. Cholesterol
3. Proteins
4. Carbohydrates
What are the functions of proteins and glycoproteins in the membrane?
1. Adhesion molecules (helps cells stick to other cells)
2. Transport molecules (moves substances in or out of the cell)
3. Recognition molecules (immune system)
4. Receptor molecules
Controls substances, signals into and out of cell; helps maintain cytoplasmic composition, volume.
Plasma membrane
Modifies, sorts, ships new proteins and lipids for use in cell or for export. Modifies polypeptide chains.
Golgi body
Specialized for digestion, helps recycle materials. Often, lysosomes fuse with vesicles that have formed at the plasma membrane.
Modifies new polypeptide chains; synthesizes lipids. Routes and modifies newly formed polypeptide chains.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Forms many ATP during aerobic respiration. Powerhouse of cell energy.
Contains the cell's DNA. Organizes DNA molecules, separates them from cytoplasmic machinery.
Forms shape of cell. Allow movement inside the cell (like railroad tracks). Allows the cells to move.
Cytoplasm with cytoskeletal proteins
Assemble polypeptide chains.
In _______ ("moving out of a cell"), a vesicle moves to the cell surface and the protein-studded lipid bilayer of its membrane fuses with the plasma membrane. While this vesicle is losing its identity, its contents are released to the surroundings.
Transports and modifies proteins. Consists of flattened sacs and tubs studded with ribosomes. On them every new polypeptide chain is manufactured.
Rough ER
Lipid metabolism; detoxifies (liver makes a lot of this). Has no ribosomes and curves through the cytoplasm like connecting pipes.
Smooth ER
In _________ ("coming inside a cell"), a cell takes in substances next to its surface. A small indentation forms at the plasma membrane, balloons inward, and pinches off. The resulting vesicle transports its contents or stores them in the cytoplasm.
Genetic disease common in Eastern European Jews (1 in 30 odds). Missing 1 enzyme in the lysosome Symptoms?
Tay Sachs Disease
-Baby starts to lose some of muscle functions. Nerves not getting signal because fatty material is building. This will get to the point where baby is paralyzed.
Inside the nucleus are ___ chromosomes, which equate to _______.
46; 23 pairs.
As a cell grows, one or more dense masses appear within its nucleus. Each mass is a _________, a construction site where certain RNAs and proteins are combined to make the subunits of ribosomes. The subunits eventually will pass through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm. There, subunits join briefly to form intact ribosomes.
Usually the longest phase of the cell cycle is ________. During this three-part phase, a cell increases its mass, roughly doubles the number of components in its cytoplasm, then duplicates its DNA.
The amount of time from when a cell divides until it divides the next time.
Cell cycle
What is the order of the cell cycle?
G1 - S - G2
Interval of cell growth, before DNA replication (chromosomes unduplicated).
Interval of cell growth, when DNA replication is completed (chromosomes duplicated).
Interval following DNA replication; cell prepares to divide.
Cytoplasmic division; the splitting of a parental cell into two daughter cells. Usually begins toward the end of anaphase.
A group of genetically idential cells.
Of mitosis, the stage when each duplicated chromosome starts to condense, microtubules form a spindle apparatus, and the nuclear envelope starts to break up.
-Chromosomes condense
-Nuclear membrane disappears
-Centrioles migrate to the poles
-Spindle fibers form
The stage when each duplicated chromosome has become positioned at the midpoint of the microtubular spindle, with its two sister chromatids attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles.
-Chromosomes lineup in middle of cell.
The stage at which microtubules of a spindle apparatus separate sister chromatids of each chromosome and move them to opposite spindle poles. During
-Centiomere split
-Sister chromoatids are pulled apart
The final stage when chromosomes decondense into threadlike structures and two daughter nuclei form.
-Cell returns to interphase state (reverse of prophase)
-Chromosomes uncoil, stretch out
-Nuclear membrane reforms around each set of chromosomes
-Spindle fibers disappear
Mitosis occurs in four consecutive stages, called _______, _______, ______, and _______.
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Type of nuclear division that maintains the parental chromosome number for daughter cells. It is the basis of bodily growth and, in many eukaryotic species, asexual reproduction.