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65 Cards in this Set

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What are the levels of organizations in living things?
A. Atom
B. Molecule
C. Cell
D. Tissue
E. Organ
F. Organ System
G. Multicellular organism
H. Population
I. Community
J. Ecosystem
K. The Biosphere
All regions of the Earth's waters, crust, and atmosphere in which organisms live.
Biosphere
The smallest living unit; an organized unit that can survive and reproduce on its own, given DNA instructions and suitable environmental conditions, including appropriate sources of energy and raw materials.
Cell
A physiological state in which the physical and chemical conditions of the internal environment are being maintained within tolerable ranges.
Homeostasis
Change within a line of descent over time.
Evolution
Life's organization is sustained by a flow of energy from the sun and the cycling of raw materials among organisms.
True
What is the scientific method?
1. Observe some aspect of the natural world and identify a question or problem to be explored.
2. Develop a hypothesis.
3. Make a prediction.
4. Test the accuracy of the prediction.
5. Repeat the tests or develop new ones.
6. Objectively analyze and report the test results and conclusions.
An educated guess about the answer to a questions, or a solution to a problem, that is reaised by an observation.
Hypothesis
An experiment that tests only one prediction of a hypothesis at a time.
Controlled experiment
In a scientific experiment, a group used to evaluate possible side effects of a test involving an experimental group. Ideally, it should differ from the experimental group only with respect to the variable being studied.
Control group
Of a scientific experiment, the only factor that is not the same in the experimental group as it is in the control group. It is a specific aspect of an object or event that may differ over time and between subjects.
Variable
A testable explanation of a broad range of related phenomena. In modern science, only explanations that have been extensively tested and can be relied on with a very high degree of confidence are accorded the status of ______.
Theory
The smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element.
Atom
Positively charged particule, one or more of which is present in the atomic nucleus.
Proton
Negatively charged unit of matter, with both particulate and wavelike properties, that occupies one of the orbitals around the atomic nucleus. Atoms can gain, lose, or share ______ with other atoms.
Electrons
Unit of matter, one or more of which occupies that atomic nucleus. _____ have mass, but no electric charge.
Neurtrons
The four main elements in the body are what?
1. Oxygen
2. Carbon
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen
Any element that represents less than 0.01 percent of body weight.
Trace element
Know how to figure out how many protons, neutrons, and electrons an atom has. What does the atomic number tell you? What does the mass number tell you? What is the atomic mass?
Blah
An atom that has either lost or gained one or more electrons is an ______, acquiring a positive or negative charge. In this bond, ions of opposite charge attract each other and stay together.
ion
In a ______ ____, atoms share one or more electrons.
Covalent bond
A ______ _____ is a weak bond between polar molecules. A small, electronegative atom interacts weakly with a weakly positive hydrogen atom that is already part of a polar covalent bond.
Hydrogen bond
For a given element, an atom with the same number of protons as the other atoms but with a different number of neutrons. They are different versions of the same elements. What's different is their mass.
Isotopes
Joined atoms have opposite charges.
Ionic
Strong; joined atoms share electrons.
Covalent
Weak; joina a H atom in one polar molecule with an electronegative atom in another polar molecule.
Hydrogen
What does radioactive isotopes do?
1. To trace where molecules are in the body (trace blood flow)
2. Cancer treatment
3. Provide energy for pacemakers
4. Diagnose diseases
What is the job of the thyroid gland?
Your thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands, which make hormones to regulate physiological functions in your body. The thyroid gland manufactures thyroid hormone, which regulates the rate at which your body carries on its necessary functions. Other endocrine glands are the pancreas, the pituitary, the adrenal glands, the parathyroid glands, the testes, and the ovaries.

The thyroid gland is located in the middle of the lower neck, below the larynx (voice box) and just above your clavicles (collarbones). It is shaped like a "bow tie," having two halves (lobes): a right lobe and a left lobe joined by an "isthmus.". You can't always feel a normal thyroid gland.
What is injected for treating thyroid?
Radioactive iodine isotope is injected.
What are the sources of iodine in our diet?
Seafood and table salt
A union between the electron structures of two or more atoms or ions.
Chemical bond
Why do chemical bonds form?
An atom by itself is not stable. They form to make atoms stable. They have to act with other atoms to achieve stability.
1st shell-
2nd shell-
3rd shell-
1st shell- 2e-
2nd shell- 8e-
3rd shell- 8e-
Which chemical bonds are strong?
Nonpolar covalent bond (strongest), ionic bond (not as strong alone but still strong), and polar covalent bond
Equal sharing of 2 electrons by the atoms involved. E.g. H2 gas; it is the strongest chemical bond and takes a lot of work to break it and stores a lot of energy.
Nonpolar covalent bond
A bond between ions (charged atoms)
NA+ (lost 1 e-) CL- (gained 1 e-)
Ionic bond
Sharing of two electrons, but not equally. Electrons are more strongly pulled to one end. E.g. water is a polar molecule (one end + one end -).
Polar covalent bond
Which chemical bonds are weakest?
Hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction,
In a _________ ________, water is polar (+ or -). Polar molecules dissolves in water.
hydrophilic (water loving)
In a ________ _______, non polar molecules (no + or -) do not dissolve well in water.
hydrophobic (water fearing)
Grease droplets are _________ after leaving frying pan in sink.
hydrophobic
A simple sugar or large molecule composed of sugar units. All cells use this as structural materials, energy stores, and transportable forms of energy. There are 3 classes of this.
Carbohydrates
What are the 3 functions of carbohydrates?
1. Quick energy; easiest & preferred
2. Store energy (i.e. muscle)
3. Structural
The simplest carbohydrate, with only one sugar unit. Ring kind of structure. Examples?
Monosaccharides
Examples: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Ribose
A carbohydrate consisting of a short chain of two or more covalently bonded sugar units. One subclass, disaccharides, has two sugar units. Examples?
Oligosaccharide
Examples: Sucrose (everyday table sugar), Maltose (glucose + glacose), Lactose (glucose + galactose)
What is organic?
Made of carbon and hydrogen
The _________ kill weeds by disrupting a target plant's metabolism and growth.
Herbicides
Most _______ cause a target insect to suffocate, prevent its nerves and muscles from functioning properly, or block its reproduction.
Insecticides
________ work against harmful fungi.
Fungicides
What are the drawbacks to the use of pesticides?
Some of them kill birds and other predators that, in natural settings, help control pests. Some, such as DDT, stay active for years. Pesticides should not be released haphazardly into the environment, for people can inhale them, ingest them along with food, or absorb them through the skin.
A straight or branched chain of hundreds of thousands of covalently linked sugar units of the same or different kinds. The most common of these are also what?
Polysaccharide
Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
The simplest carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Found in plants and how plants store energy.
Starch
How animals store energy
Glycogen
Found in plants and used for structure in plants.
Fibers
Why should we have a high fiber diet?
1. Decreased intestinal diseases including colon cancer
2. Lowers blood cholesterol level
Thousands of glucose in chains.
Polymers
What does it mean to be lactose intolerant?
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, the major sugar found in milk. Lactose intolerance is caused by a shortage of the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the cells that line the small intestine. Lactase breaks down milk sugar into two simpler forms of sugar called glucose and galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream. Not all people deficient in lactase have the symptoms commonly associated with lactose intolerance, but those who do are said to have lactose intolerance.
Symptoms of lactose intolerance?
Gas, bloating, cramps
What is the formal name for Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus
What is blood sugar goes down?
In the pancreas, alpha cells will sense blood sugar is low. Glucacoon (hormone) is released into the blood stream. Cells with glucaoon receptors respond (i.e. liver cells).
What are the similar symptoms of type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes?
-Excessive urination
-Excessive thirst
-Unexplained weight loss
What are the characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes?
-5% affected
-Diagnosed more in children
-Destroyed Beta cells in pancreas not working so no insulin is made. Blood sugar stays high, body has to break down other things.
-Treatment- insulin injections, monitor diet
What are the characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes?
-90-95% affected; most common
-Diagnosed in adults
-Risk factors- being a fat ass, lack of exercise
-Problem- insulin is made but cells don't respond to it
What rae the characteristics of gestationary diabetes?
-Only when pregnant
-Tends to happen if baby is big