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61 Cards in this Set

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Polygenic inheritance
many genes determine a single trait
nondisjunction
improper separation of homologous chromosomes in anaphase I or sister chromatids in anaphase II
Mutation
a random heritable change in the DNA
point mutation
changes at the scale of a single or very few nucleotide pairs
significance of mutations
ultimate source of genetic variation
evolution
change in allele frequencies in a population over time
natural selection
differential resource capturing and reproductive success among better adapted individuals versus less well adapted individuals
Stabilizing Selection
selects against extremes, ex: human birth weight
Directional Selection
selects against one extreme, ex: resistance against antibotics by infectious diseases
Diversifying Selection
favors both extremes, population average slected against
gene flow
movement of alleles within and between populations
genetic drift
changes in allele frequencies due to chance events
non-random mating
slection of mating partners NOT random
natural selection
survival of the fittest
macroevolution
large scale patterns of change in species over long periods of time
convergent evolution
different genetic lines from geographically distinct locations which independently evovle similar adaptations in response to similar environmental conditions (cacti & euphorbs)
co-evolution
a response in one organism leads to a response in another
pre-zygotic
reproductive isolating mechanism, occurs before the zygote is formed
post-zygotic
after the zygote is formed, an isolating mechanism
biodiversity
the product of speciation over geologic time
extinction
a natural phenomenon but modern rates far exceded background rates averaged over time
recombinant DNA
recombining DNA from different organisms
restriction enzyme
chemical "scissors" cut DNA at precise points
DNA ligase enzyme
chemical "glue" use to spice sticky ends of DNA together
Vector
mechanism for transferring foreign DNA into a host cell, ie plasmid
Metabolism
the acquisition and processing of matter and energy
flow of biological information
replication of DNA-transmission of genetic info-gene expressed
process of evolutionary change
genetic variation x natural selection x (genetic drift)= adaptation
independent variable
item of interest
dependent variable
measures the effect of the independent variable
protons
positively charged particle located in the nucleus
neutrons
particle lacking an electrical charge located in the nucleus
electrons
negatively charged particle located in the energy levels
water
polar-covalent, has a partial positive and partial negative charge, horms hydrogen bonds
covalent bond
sharing of electrons, bonding between atoms to form molecules
polar
equal sharing
nonpolar
unequal sharing
hydrogen bonds
based on positive & negative electrical charges, bonding between molecules
basic attributes of the biologically important elements
1. small in size
2. outer energy levles only partially filled
3. chemically reactive
4. readily combine using covalent bonds, to form large, complex molecules
monomer
small subunit, hooked together to form polymer
polymer
monomers hooked together
functions of CHOs
storage, transport, glucose
characteristics of prokaryotic cells
small, primitive, simple, reproduce by binary fission
characteristics of eukaryotic cells
larger and more structurally complex than prokaryotes, evolutionarily advanced, produce asexually and sexually, include fungi, animals, plants, protists
Nucleus, limited to eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
eukaryotic
Mitochondria, in prokaryotes?
no, only in eukaryotic cells
Chloroplast, in eukaryotic?
Yes, limited to eukaryotes
Ribosome, common to both?
Yes, pro & euk
Do all cells have a cell membrane?
Yes
Ecology
the study of interactions among organisms with one another and the abiotic environment
population
group of individuals capable of interbreeding
communities
all of the life in a given area
ecosystems
all of the life and abiotic sources, interactions in a given area
density-dependent factors
predators, competition for food
density-independent factors
fires, volcanic activity, freezing
primary succession
starts from nothing
secondary succession
begins with a community already in place
simple diffusion
high to low
osmosis
movement of water from high to low
facilitated diffusion
high to low, help of a protein carrier
active transport
low to high, must invest energy