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143 Cards in this Set

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What is the fuction of the urinary system?
to rid the body of metabolic waste (cellular waste)
What is the breakdown of protein?
Protein -> Amino Acid -> NH2 -> Ammonia, Urea, or Uric Acid
What is most likely to put off Ammonia and why?
fish, because it requires a lot of water
What is most likely to put off Uric Acid and why?
birds and desert animals, because it requires very little water
What is most likely to put off Urea and why?
Humans, it falls right in the middle of water requirements
What is the composition of urine? and the %'s
water - 95%
solids - 5%
What are the 3 main components of urea?
Ammonia, uric acid, creatinine
what is the percentage of ammonia in urea?
1%
what is the percentage of uric acid in urea? and a reaction if levels get to high?
1%, causes gout if levels are too high
what is the percantage of creatinine in urea?
1%
what is the percentage of sodium in urea?
<1%
what is the percentagage of choride in urea?
<1%
What is the percentage of potassium in urea?
<1%
What is the percentage of magnesium in urea?
<1%
What is the percentage of calcium in urea?
<1%
What is the percentage of calcium in urea?
<1%
what is the percentage of sulfate in urea?
<1%
what is the percentage of phosphate in urea?
<1%
what components of urea are all components of salt?
sodium, chlorides, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfates, phosphates
What is the fuction of blood?
carries the waste from the tissue to the kidneys
How many kidneys do we have and where are they located and what shape are they?
2 kidneys, located below the diaphram up against the lumbar vertebrae, bean shaped
what is the cortex?
(in regard to the kidney)
the outer layer of kidney, kinda grainy
what is the medulla?
middle region that contains
pyramids & nephrons
what is the pelvis (within the kidney)?
inner most region, the collection region connects to the ureter
what is a nephron?
set of tubes that filter, absorb, and collect waste products from the blood
what is the efferent arteriole?
the artery that leads OUT OF the renal corpuscle

E for efferent, E for exit
what is the afferent arteriole?
the artery that goes INTO the renal corpuscle
what is the renal corpuscle and what is it made of?
where all the filtering takes place, made of the glomerulus and bowman's capsule
what is the glomerulus?
the wad of arteries located within the bowman's capsule
what is the bowman's capsule?
goes around the glomerulus
what is the proximal tubule?
tube that connects to the renal corpuscle and winds around and narrows down. used for absorption for salt, sugar, amino acids, ect.
what is the loop of Henle?
were the tube narrows and loops around
what is the descending limb?
the descending tube in the loop of Henle, absorbs water
what is the ascending limb?
the ascending tube in the loop of Henle, absorbs salts
what is the distal tubule?
where it starts to widen,the part farther away from the renal corpuscle, leads to the collecting tubule
what is the collecting tube?
leads to the ureter
what is the ureter?
main tube leading to the bladder
what is the bladder and how much will it hold?
storage for urine, will hold 250 ml
how much urine leaves the body each day?
between 1-2 liters
what is the urethra?
the tube from the bladder to exit the body
after the reabsorption process, how much protein and carbohydrates should be in urine?
none
what does the formula for urea composition look like?
..
What is the function of the respiratory system?
take oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide away from the tissues
what is inspiration?
breathing in; inhale
what is expiration?
breathing out; exhale
how much nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are inhaled?
nitrogen- 79%
oxygen - 21%
carbon dioxide - .04%
how much nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are exhaled?
nitrogen - 79%
oxygen - 16%
carbon dioxide 4%
what is external respiration?
breathing exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with the air and blood within the lungs; from high concentration to low concentration called simple diffusion
what is internal respiration?
exchange of oxygen and carbod dioxide within the tissues and blood withing the body; a subcomponent of external respiration
what is cellular respiration (an abbreviation)
ATP, subcomponent of internal respiration
38ADP + ________ = 38ATP
38 phosphate
What do the nasal cavities do?
filter and warm the air
where is the nasopharynx and what does it do?
behind the nasal caviites, and connects the nose to throat
place where nose, mouth, trachea, and esophagus come together?
pharanx
what is the pharanx?
place where nose, mouth, trachea, and esophagus come together
what is the glottis?
the opening to the trachea
what is the epiglottis?
the flap covering the glottis
what is the trachea?
the main air tube
what is the larynx?
the enlarged area of the upper part of the trachea; holds voice box
what is the bronchi?
(bronchus)
two branches, first branching of the pathway to the lungs.
what are the bronchioles?
second branching of pathway to the lungs
how many times do the bronchioles branch to the left?
2 times
how many times do the bronchioles branch to the right?
3 times
what are the alveoli?
microscopic air sacs, the point where gases are exchanged; oxygen and carbon dioxide
where are the lungs?
glued to the walls of the thoracic cavity.
how many lungs are on the right?
3
how many lungs are on the left?
2
what do the pleural membranes do?
holds the lungs to the thoracic cavity
what does the diaphram do?
contracts to inhale
what do the ribs do in relation to respiration?
spring back into place to produce the exhale.
common cold
caused by a rhinovirus
what does rhino mean?
nose
infuenza
flu/ 35 different flus
pneumonia
fluid on lungs
bronchitis
inflammation of bronchi or bronchioles
strep throat
caused by bacteria 'Streptococcus pyogens'; if it gets into the blood stream, it can be deadly
tuberculosis
bacterial - 'Mycobacteria tuburclosis'; eats holes in lungs
emphysema
destruction of lungs tissue, trapping air
pulmonary fibrosis
scar tissue inside the lungs from silia (spun glass, insulation), dust, asbestos
lung cancer
accessive growth of cells inside the lungs. #1 cause is smoking
sudden infant death syndrome
SIDS baby stops breathing
what are some of the substances that can cause pulmonary fibrosis?
silia (spun glass, insulation), dust, asbestos
what is the #1 cause of lung cancer?
smoking
what does SIDS stand for?
sudden infant death syndrome
what is the function of the digestive system?
(1) breakdown of food
(2) absorbs food
(3) get rid of undigested food
how long is the digestive system?
app. 28 foot long; is just one long tube
what is another name for the mouth and what is its main function?
called the oral cavity; main function is to receive food and starts digestion
what do the teeth do?
mechanical process to breakdown food (grinding)
how many incisors are there and what are the main function(s) for them?
8 - cutting and tearing
how many canines are there and what are the main function(s) for them?
4 - puncturing
(no real use in humans)
how many premolars are there and what are the main function(s) for them?
8 - crushing and grinding and chewing
how many molars are there and what are the main function(s) for them?
12 - crushing and grinding and chewing
where is the enamel located and what is special about it?
located on top of the tooth, the hardest substance in the body
where is the dentin located?
(in regard to the tooth)
middle layer
where is the pulp located and what does it contain?
(pertaining to the tooth)
inside layer, all nerves and vessels
what part of a tooth is the crown?
the part sticking up out of the gums
where on the tooth is the neck located?
along the gum line
where on the tooth is the root located?
below the gum line
what is "gum" pertaining to the teeth?
the part where the gums and tooth meet
what do the salivary glands do?
produce saliva which is largely water but contains amylase too
what does amylase do?
breaks down starch
name the salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular
where are the parotid glands located?
around cheeks
where are the sublingual glands located?
under tongue
where are the submandibular glands located?
below mandible (lower jaw)
what is the pharynx?
common cavity of nose, mouth, and esophagus
what is the esophagus?
tube leading to the stomach
what is peristalsis?
involuntary contractions that carry food through the digestive system
what is the function of the stomach?
used for storage - very acidic - a lot of chemical digestion (HCL)(hydrochloric acid)
what are the sphincters at each opening of the stomach for?
circular ringed muscles at the entrance and exit of the stomach to control the movement of food
what is the small intestine - with villi?
the main area for food breakdown and absorption; fingerlike structurs called villi are located on inside wall of intestine to enlarge surface area;
is about 20 foot long
what are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
how long is the small intestine?
about 20 foot long
how long is the duodenum?
about 11 inches long
what is the duodenum?
the first part of the small intestine, main function is the addition of bile
what is the main function of the jejunum?
breakdown and absorption
what is the main function of the ileum?
breakdown and absorption
what is the cecum?
a blind sac that has no exit; pretty useless to humans
what is the appendix?
sticks off of cecum, no function in humans, can be deadly if ruptures
what are the 3 parts of the colon?
ascending, transverse, and descending
what is the main function of the colon? (includes all 3 parts)
water absorption
why is the ascending colon called ascending?
it goes up
why is the transverse colon called transverse?
it goes across from one side to another (it transverses)
why is the descending colon called descending?
it goes down
what is the rectum?
is at the end of the colon, storage for fecal material
what is the anus?
a sphincter muscle at the exit of rectum; controls fecal material exiting the body
what is an ulcer
lesions in the digestive membrane
what are 4 types of ulcers can occur?
oral, peptic, gastric, and duodenal
where would an oral ulcer be and what causes one?
in the mouth on the lips caused by a virus (herpes)
where would a peptic ulcer be and what causes one?
in the lower esophagus
caused by acid from stomach
where would a gastric ulcer be and what causes one?
in the stomach
caused by a bacteria - easily treated with antibiotics
where would a duodenal ulcer be and what causes one?
in the duodenum right below stomach
can be caused by virus, bacteria, and/or stomach acid - usually caused by stomach acid
what are dental caries and what causes them?
cavities -
caused by breakdown of carbs which produces acid which eats through the enamel
what is periodontal disease and what causes it?
disease of the gum - largely bacterial
what is appendicitis?
inflammation of appendix- if it ruptures, can be deadly
what is anorexia nervosa?
largely psychological, caused by malnourishment
what is bulimia?
largely psychologlical, overeating then purging by vomitting or using laxatives
what is food poisoning
some sort of toxin in food
(1) 'Salmonella enterilidis'
(2) 'Clostridium botulinum'
describe vitamin A deficiency
in child - bad bone growth and teeth development
in adult - dry skin, dry hair and decrease in night vision
describe vitamin C deficiency
wounds won't heal rapidly, swollen gums, and teeth can start falling out (called scurvy)
describe vitamin B12 deficiency
pernicious anemia; nerve problems
describe vitamin D deficiency
loss of muscle tone and weak bones - ricketts
describe vitamin K deficiecy
lack of blood clotting