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137 Cards in this Set

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Define:
atrium
In human beings, one of the two thin-walled upper chambers of the heart that receive blood.
Define:
axon
An elongated portion of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body of the neuron.
Define:
active transport
A process by which materials are absorbed or released by cells against the concentration gradient with the expenditure of cell energy.
Define:
autotroph
An organism capable of carrying on autotrophic nutrition. Self-feeder.
Define:
asexual reproduction
A type of reproduction in which new organisms are formed from a single parent organisms.
Define:
autotrophic nutrition
A type of nutrition in which organisms manufacture their own organic foods from inorganic raw materials.
Define:
angina pectoris
A disorder of teh human transport system in which chest pain signals potential to teh heart muscle due to narrowing of the opening of the coronary artery.
Define:
bile
In human beings, a secretion of the liver that is stored in the gallbladder and that emulsifies fats.
Define:
binomial nomenclature
A system of naming used in biological classification that consists of the genus and species names.
Define:
biological controls
THe use of natural enemies of various agricultural pests for pest control, thereby eliminating the need for biocide use-a positive aspect of human involvement with the environment.
Define:
biosphere
Teh portion of the earth in which living things exist, including all land and water environments.
Define:
adrenal cortex
A portion of the adrenal gland that secretes steroid hormones that regulate various aspects of blood composition.
Define:
Bryophyta
A phylum of the plant kingdom that consists of organisms lacking vascular tissues.
Define:
cloning
A technique of genetic investigation in which undifferentiated cells of an organism are used to produce new organisms with the same set of traits as the original cells.
Define:
climax community
A stable, self-perpetuating community that results from ecological succession.
Define:
cleavage
A series of rapid mitotic divisions that incease cell number ina developing embryo without a corresponding increase in cell size.
Define:
chromosome mutation
An alteration in the structure of a chromosome involving many genes.
Define:
cambium
The lateral meristem tissue in woody plants responsible for annual growth instem diameter.
Define:
deletion
A type of chromosome mutation in which a section of a chromosome is separated and lost.
Define:
Coelenterata
A phylum of the animal kingdom whose members have bodies that resemble a sack.
Define:
cover cropping
A proper agricultural practice in which a temporary planting is s usedd to limit soil erosion between seasonal plantings of main crops.
Define:
cross-pollination
A type of pollination in which pollen from one flower pollinates flowers of a different plant of the same species.
Define:
Chordata
A phylum of the animal kingdom whose members have internal skeletons made of cartilage and/or bone.
Define:
chitin
A polysaccharide substance that forms the exoskeleton of the grasshopper and other arthropods.
Define:
amniocentesis
A technique for detecting genetic disorders in unborn human beings in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is removed and the chromosome content of its cells analyzed.
Define:
blood typing
An application of the study of immunity in which the blood of a person is characterized by its antigen compostition.
Define:
coronary artery
An artery that branches off the aorta to feed the heart muscle.
Define:
coronary thrombosis
A disorder of the human transport system in which the heart muscle becomes damaged as a result of blockage of the coronary artery.
Define:
cerebral palsy
A disorder of the human regulatory system in which teh motor and speech centers of the brain are impaired.
Define:
bronchiole
One of the several subdivisions of the bronchi that penetrate the lung interior and terminate in alveoli.
Define:
consumer
Any heterotrophic animal organism.
Define:
budding
A type of asexual reproduction in which mitosis is followed by unequal cytoplasmic division.
Define:
autosome
ONe of several chromosomes present in the cell that carry genes controllign "body" traits not associated with primary and secondary sex characteristics.
Define:
autonomic nervous system
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system consisting of nerves associated with automatic functions.
Define:
albinism
A condition, controlled by a single mutant gene, in which the skin lacks the ability to produce skin pigments.
Define:
capillary
A very small, thin-walled blood vessel that connects an artery to a vein and through which all absorption into the blood fluid occurs.
Define:
aquatic biome
An ecological biome composed of many different water environments.
Define:
cerebellum
The portion of the human brain responsible for the coordination of muscular activity.
Define:
aortic arches
A specialized part of the earthworm's transport system that serves as a pumping mechanism for the blood fluid.
Define:
alcoholic fermentation
A type of anaerobic respiration in which glucose is converted to etyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Define:
allantois
A membrane that serves as a reservoir for wastes and as a respiratory surface for the embryos of many animal species.
Define:
closed-transport system
A type of circulatory system in which the transport fluis is always enclosed with blood vessels.
Define:
auxin
A biochemical substance, a plant hormone, produced by plants that regulates growth patterns.
Define:
accesory organ
In human beings, any organ that has a digestive function but is not part of the food tube. I.e. liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
Define:
carbon-fixation reactions
A set of bio-chemical reactions in phtosynthesis in whic h hydrogen atoms are combined with carbon and oxygen atoms to form PGAL and glucose.
Define:
cell wall
A cell organelle that surrounds and gives structural support to plant cells; cell walls are composed of cellulose.
Define:
base
A chemical that releases hydroxyl ion (OH-) in solution with water.
Define:
cilia
Small, hairlike structures in paramecia and other unicellular organisms that aid in nutrition and locomotion.
Define:
abiotic factor
Any of several nonliving, physical conditions that affect the survival of an organism in its environment.
Define:
condominance
A type of intermediate inheritance that results from the simultaneous expression of two dominant alleles iwth contrasting effects.
Define:
clot
A structure that forms as a result of enzyme-controleld reactions following the rupturing of a blood vessel and serves as a plug to prevent blood loss.
Define:
allele
One of a pair of genes that exist at the same location on a pair of homologous chromosomes and exert parallel control over the same genetic trait.
Define:
artery
A thick-walled blood vesse that carries blood away from the heart under pressure.
Define:
cerebral hemorrhage
A disorder of the human regulatory system in which a broken blood vessel in the brain may result in severe dysfunction or death.
Define:
apical meristem
A plant growth region located at the tip of the root or tip of the stem.
Define:
ammonia
A type of nitrogenous waste with high solubility and high toxicity.
Define:
antenna
A receptor organ found in many arthropods which is specialized for detecting chemical stimuli.
Define:
corpus luteum
A structure resulting from the hormone-controlled transformation of the ovarian follicle that produces the hormone progesterone.
Define:
cell theory
A scientific theory that states, "All cells arise from previously existing cells" and "Cells are the unit of structure and function of living things."
Define:
corpus luteum stage
A stage of the menstrual cycle in which the cells of the follicle are transformed into the corpus luteum under the influence of luteinizing hormone.
Define:
binary fission
A type of cell division in which mitosis is followed by equal cytoplasmic division.
Define:
carbohydrate
An organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ration (for example, C6H12O6).
Define:
bicarbonate ion
THe chemical formed in the blood plasma when carbon dioxide is absorbed from body tissues.
Define:
alveolus
One of many air sacs within the lung that function to absorb atmospheric gases and pass them on to the bloodstream.
Define:
amino acid
An organic compound that is the component unit of proteins.
Define:
adrenal medulla
A portion of the adrenal gland that secretes the hormone adrenaline , which regulates various aspects of the body's metablic rate.
Define:
aerobic phase of respiration
THe reactions of aerobic respiration in which two pyruvic acid molecules are converted to six molecules of water and six molecules of carbon dioxide.
Define:
amnion
A membrane that surrounds the embryo in many animal species and contains a fluid to protect the developing embryo from mechanical shock.
Define:
amniotic fluid
The fluid within the amnion membrane that bathes the developing embryo.
Define:
crossing-over
A pattern of inheritance in which linked genes may be separated during synapsis in the first meiotic division, when sections of homologous chromosomes may be exchanged.
Define:
Annelida
A phylum of the animal kingdom whose members include the segmented worms.
Define:
cutting
A technique of plant propagaition in which vegetative parts of the parent plant are cut and rooted to establish new plant organisms with identical characteristics.
Define:
acid
A chemical that releases hydrogen ion (H+) in solution with water.
Define:
cyclosis
The circulation of the cell fluid within the cell interior.
Define:
cytoplasm
The watery fluid that provides a medium for the suspension of organelles within the cell.
Define:
carbon 14
A radioactive isotope of carbon used to trace the movement of carbon in various biochemical reactions, and also used in carbon dating of fossils.
Define:
anal pore
The egestive organ of the paramecium.
Define:
cyton
The cell body of the neuron which generates the nerve impulse.
Define:
amylase
An enzyme specific for the hydrolysis of starch.
Define:
anaerobic phase of respiration
The reactions of aerobic respiration in which glucose is converted to two pyruvic acid molecules.
Define:
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
An organic compound that stores respiratory energy in the form of chemical-bond energy for transport from one part of the cell to another.
Define:
adrenal gland
An endocrine gland that produces several hormons, including adrenaline.
Define:
anaerobic respiration
A type of respiration in which energy is released from organic molecules without the aid of oxygen.
Define:
chorion
A membrane that surrounds all other embryonic membranes in many animal species, protecting them from mechanical damage.
Define:
cytosine
A nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA molecules.
Define:
anemia
A disorder of the human transport system in which the ability of teh blood to carry oxygen is impaired usually because of reduced numbers of red blood cells.
Define:
chemical digestion
The process by which nutrient molecules are converted by chemical means into a form usable by the cells.
Define:
animal
One of the five biological kingdoms; it includes multicellular organisms whose cells are not bounded by cell walls and that are incapable of photosyntehsis (i.e. human being).
Define:
anther
The portion of the stamen that produces pollen.
Define:
deciduos
A term relating to broad-leaved tress that shed their leavves in the fall.
Define:
Arthropoda
A phylum of the animal kingdom whose members have bodies with chitinous exoskeletons and jointed appendages.
Define:
deamination
A process by which amino acids are broken down into their component parts for conversion into urea.
Define:
aorta
The principal artery carrying blood from teh heart to the body tissues.
Define:
decomposer
Any saprophytic organism that derrives its energy from the decay of plant and animal tissues; the final stage of a food chain.
Define:
cervix
A structure that bounds the lower end of the uterus and through which sperm must pass in order to fertilize the egg.
Define:
cell plate
A structure that forms during cytoplasmic division in plant cells and serves to separate the cytoplasm into two roughly equal parts.
Define:
dehydration synthesis
A chemical process in which two organic molecules may be joined after removing the atoms needed to form a molecule of water as a by-product.
Define:
appendicitis
A disorder of the human digestive tract in which the appendix becomes inflamed as a result of teh bacterial infection.
Define:
carbon-hydrogen-oxygen cycle
A process by which tehse three elements are made available for use by other organisms through the chemical reactions of respiration and photosyntehsis.
Define:
cerebrum
The portion of the human brain responsible for thought, reasoning, sense interpretation, learning, and other conscious activities.
Define:
classificiation
A technique by which scientists sort, group, and name organisms for easier study.
Define:
carboxyl group
A chemical group having the formula -COOH and found as part of all amino acid and fatty acid molecules.
Define:
dendrite
A cytoplasmic extension of a neuron that serves to detect an environmental stimulus and carry an impulse to cthe cell body of the neuron.
Define:
cardiac muslce
A type of muscle tissue in the heart and arteries associated with the rhythmic nature of the pulse and heartbeat.
Define:
amino group
A chemical group having the formula -NH2 that is found as a part of all amino acid molecules.
Define:
biocide use
The use of pesticides that eliminate one undesirable organism but that have, due to technological oversight, unanticipated effects on beneficial species as well.
Define:
cotyledon
A portion of the plant embryo that serves as a source of nutrition for the young plant before photosynthesis begins.
Define:
commensalism
A type of symbiosis in which one organism in the relationship benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
Define:
cardiovascular disease
In human beings, any disease of the circulatory organs.
Define:
artificial selection
A technique of plant/animal breeding in which individual organisms displaying desirable characteristics are chosen for breeding purposes.
Define:
chromatid
One strand of double-stranded chromosome.
Define:
centromere
The area of attachment of two chromatids in a double-stranded chromosome.
Define:
coenzyme
A chemical substance or chemical subunit that functions to aid the action of a particular enzyme.
Define:
central nervous system
The portion of the vertebrate nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
Define:
denitrifying bacteria
In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria that convert excess nitrate salts into gaseous nitrogen.
Define:
active site
The specific area of an enzyme molecule that links to the substrate molecule and catalyzes its metabolism.
Define:
addition
A type of chromosome mutation in which a section of a chromosome is transferred to a homologous chromosome.
Define:
chloroplast
A cell organelle found in plant cells that contains chlorophyll and functions in photosynthesis.
Define:
biomass
The total mass of living material present at teh various trophic levels in a food chain.
Define:
deogyenated blood
Blood that has released its transported oxygen to teh body tissues.
Define:
biotic factor
Any of several conditions associated with life and living things that affect the survival of living things in the environment.
Define:
complete protein
A protein that all eight essential amino acids.
Define:
deoxyribonucleic aicd (DNA)
A nucleic acid molecule known to be the chemically active agent of the gene; the fundamental hereditary material of living organisms.
Define:
chemosynthesis
A type of autotrophic nutrition in which certain bacteria use the energy of chemical oxidation to convert inorganic raw materials to organic food molecules.
Define:
cohesion
A force binding water molecules together that aids in the upward conduction of materials in teh xylem.
Define:
adenine
A nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA molecules.
Define:
centriole
A cell organelle found in animal cells that functions in the process of cell division.
Define:
bronchus
One of the two major subdivisions of the breathing tube; the bronchi are ringed with cartilage and conduct air from the trachea to teh lung interior.
Define:
biome
A major geographical gropuing of similar ecosystems, usually named for the climax flora int he region.
Define:
carrier
An individual who, though not expressing a particular recessive trait, carries this gene as part of his/her heterozygous genotype.
Define:
catalyst
Any substance that speeds up or slows down the rate of a chemical reaction.
Define:
carrier protein
A specialized molecule embedded in the cell membrane that aids the movement of materials across the membrane.
Define:
anus
The organ of egestion of teh digestive tract.
Define:
bulb
A type of vegetative propagation in which a plant bulb produces new bulbs that may be established as independent organisms with identical characteristics.
Define:
antibody
A chemical substance produced in response to the presence of a specific antigen that neutralizes that antigen in the immune response.
Define:
Boman's capsule
A cup-shaped portion of the nephron responsible for filtering of soluble blood components.
Define:
chlorophyll
A green pigment in plant cells that absorbs sunlight and makes possible certain aspects of the photosynthetic process.