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98 Cards in this Set

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An element can easily be Identified by the number of_____ it has.
electrons
90% of the human body is compose of what 3 elements?
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
def) Molecule
2 or more atoms combined
Ionic Bonds
type of bond found between amino acids in a protein
Ions
paricles that carry either a positive or negative charge
If neutral atoms become positive ions, what has happened to their electons?
they lose electrons
What happenes in an acidic solution?
number of H+ is greater than the number of OH-
The lower the pH:
-The greater the hydrogen ions
- the more acidic the solution
-the lower the pH number
What number most closely reflects the normal pH of blood?
7.4
What do organic molecules always contain
-Carbon
-Hydrogen
All carbohydrates are composed of what three elements?
C,H,&O
The storage form of glucose in an animal?
glycogen
The storage form of glucose in a plant?
starch
Cellulose
the polysaccharide found in the plant cell walls
Lipids
the class of organic compounds that are insoluble in water
What are most enzymes classified as?
proteins
Where can this be found:
Phosphate group-sugar-nucleic acid
Nucleotide
What is guanine always joined to in DNA?
cytosine
What are the building blocks of nucleic acid?
nucleotides
The sides of the DNA ladder (backbone):
sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate
What form does ATP carry energy?
high-energy phosphate bonds
What is DNA refered to as?
a double helix
Organelles
small structures that exist within the cell and have various functions
Cytoskeleton
the network of interconnected filaments and microtubules
Diffusion
the random movement of molecules from higher concentration of a particles to a lower concentration
Osmosis
the diffusion of water across a permeable membrane
Hypotonic solution
A cell ina hypotonic solution gains water
Passive transport/facilitated diffusion
the assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without expenditure of energy
Active transport
the assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient requiring the use of energy.
Lysosome
vesicles produced by the golgi apparatus that contain hydrolytic enzymes
Substrate
the substance that an enzyme works upon
Tissue
large number of specialized cells that together perform a common function
Homeostasis
the realative constancy of the body, or the ability to maintain a constant internal environment
In water where does the hydrogen bond occur?
between te hydrogen atom of one molecule and the oxygen of another molecule
Selective permeability
the ability of the cell membrane to choose which molecule will enter or exit the cell
Ribosomes
organelle which produces proteins
Golgi Apparatus
the stack of curved saccules involved in the storage and shipping of proteins
Mitochondria
organelle responsible for chemical energy in cells
Electron transport chain
Most of the ATP as a result of glucose metabolism is produced by enzymes in their.
Cerebellum
controls muscle coordination & maintenance of muscle tone and the posture
Cerebrum
the largest portion of the brain and the part responsible for consciousness
Medulla Oblongata
location of vital centers responsible for regulating heartbeat, breathing and vasoconstruction
Hypothalamus controls?
homeostasis & pituitary gland
Temperal lobe is associated with which sense?
vision
What order does light reach the lens of the eye?
cornea-aqueous humor-pupil-lens
Where are the photoreceptors of the eye located?
Retina
Anterior Pituitary
the "master gland" that helps regulate the endocrine system. It stimulates the thyroid, adrenal cortex, testes & ovaries, and mammary glands
Where are the hypothalamus produced hormones stored and secreted?
Posterior Pituitary
What does the thyroid gland release?
-thyroxine
-triidothyronine
-calcitonin
Simple Goiter
the result of lack of iodine
The normal adult heart rate at rest is?
60-80 beats per min.
Systole

Diastole
-the contraction of the heart muscle

_the relaxation of the heart muscle
Sypathetic & parasympathetic
the 2 divisions of autonomic nervous system
SA node
initiates the intrinsic conduction system of the heart
Normal resting blood pressure for a young adult taken at the brachial artery:
120/80 mm Hg
Leukocytes
another name for white blood cells
Epiglottis
prevent food from entering the trachea when you swallow
Paristalsis
the contractions of the digestive track that allow swallowed food to move
Digestion of what substances is confined to the mouth and the small intestine(duodenum)?
The macromolecules Starch and Carbohydrates
What digestive organ produces maltase and peptidase?
Small intestine
The pancrease secretes enzymes that act upon:
carbohydrates, fats, proteins
What is the quickest most readily available source of energy for the body?
Glucose
The 2 circuits included in the circulatory system
systemic & pulmonary circuits
Hypertension
high blood pressure
Atherosclerosis
the cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the accumulation of fatty materials
Angina pectoris
the pain that is associated with the myocardial infractions
In the axon what direction does the nerves usually travel?
away from the cell body
A synapse
tranmission of a nerve impulse along one neuron to another neuron
Norepinephrine
a neurotransmitter released at the end of the postgangionic fiber of sympathetic system
Ventricles
the interconnected cavities within the brain which produce cerebrospinal fluid
Where do respiration gases(Carbon&Oxygen) diffuse?
Capillaries
What is the pharynx formed by?
the joining of the nasal and oral passage
Where are vocal chords located?
larynx
Respiration includes...
-breathing
-external & internal respiration
-production of ATP
What does the urinary system help regulate?
-water content of the body
-blood volume of the body
-the pH of blood
Ureter
the tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Nephron
the microscopic anatomical structure within the kidney that forms the urine
Glomerular
capillaries enclosed by the glomerular capsule
Diuretic
substance that increase urine production
Urea
waste product in the metabolism of proteins
substance found in plasma but not filtrate
protein
lymph
tissue fluid that has entered the lymph vessel
Where do B lymphocytes develop?
bone marrow
Thymus
where lymphocytes travel to become mature T lymphocytes
B cells
specifically responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
Cytotoxic T cells produces..
perforin
Spermatogenisis
the process of sperm formation
Seminiferous tubules
where sperm cells are produced
Gonaotropic hormones is produced by which gland?
anterior pituitary gland
1)the average number of days of the menstrual cycle?
2)Which day does ovulation occur?
1) 28
2) 14
Endometrium
the lining of the uterus that is discharges during the menstraul flow stage
HPV
caused by genital warts
(True or false)RNA viruses have special enzymes that transcribe viral RNA to cDNA?
True
Chlamydia
STD caused by bacterium
Syphilis
cause by Treponema pallidum
STD associated with painful urination
Gonorrhea
If the parent cell has 14 chromosomes prior to mitosis, the daughter cell will have how many?
14
The genetic material; that is found principally in the chromosomes
DNA