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89 Cards in this Set

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Acetylcholine
EXCITATORY; funtions: muscle contractions, memory; deficit: Alzhiemer's
Dopamine
INHIBITORY; functions: voluntary muscle control, mood, learning and memory; deficit: Parkinson's
Serotonin
INHIBITORY; functions: arousal, awareness, sexual/emotional moods; deficit: anxiety, insomnia, depression
Norepinephrine
EXCITATORY; functions: heartbeat, learning, memory, emotion; deficit: depression
Endorphins
INHIBITORY; functions: pain perception; deficit: pain
GABA
INHIBITORY; function: allergies; deficit: anxiety
Three neurotransmitters that involve emotion?
Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine
4 problems with drug interation:
block reuptake, mimic neurotransmitters, increase/decrease production of neurotransmitters in presynaptic gap, block receptor sites
excitatory
turns next neuron on
inhibitory
turns next neuron off
agonist
increases the effect of
antagonist
decreases the effect of
Biological Psychology
attempts to understand the internal physical events and processes that correspond with our experiences and behavior
Complete the following communication sequence: dendrite, cell body, axon, _____, dendrite.
neurotransmitter
Endorphins are neurotransmitters that...
act as the body's natural painkillers
______ are to the nervous system as ______ are to the endocrine system
dopamine, acetylcholine, endorphins; prolactin, oxytocin, growth hormone

remember the endocrine is hormones and making milk for babies!
The main communication like between the left and right cerebral hemispheres of the brain is the
corpus callosum
considerable evidence suggests that for most people, the ____ hemisphere of the brain is superior at langague abilities, whereas the ______ hemisphere is superior at nonverbal emotion expression
left; right
PET scans measure _________, whereas CAT and MRI scans provide a picture of _________.
the brain's activity; the brain's structure
List the four lobes of the forebrain
frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal
The effect of any particular neurotransmitter depends on:
the receptor to which it binds
The action potential is defined as:
an electical impulse that sends signals from teh dendrites to the cell body to the axon
Biological Psychology
specialized brance of psych that studies the relationship between behavior and body processes and systems
neuron
highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell
glial cells
support cells that assist neurons be prodivind structual support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin
sensory neuron
neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs
motor neuron
type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract
interneuron
type of neuron that communicates information from one neuton to the next
cell body
the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus; AKA soma
dendrites
multiple short fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and receive information from other neurons or sensory receptor cells
axon
long, fluid-filled tupe that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas
myelin sheath
a white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that incrases ther communication speed
action potential
a brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron
stimulus threshold
the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron
resting potential
state in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulation (-70 mv)
all-or-none law
the principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur
synapse
the point of communication between two neurons
synaptic gap
the tiny space between the axon terminal and one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron
axon terminal
branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches or sacs called synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicle
tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters
neurotransmitter
chemical messenger manufactured by a neuron
synaptic transmission
the process in which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect adjoining neurons
reuptake
the process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again
nervous system
the primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
what is the break down of the nervous system?
Central (brain, spinal cord)
Peripheral (somatic nervous system, Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system))
nerve
bundle of neuron axons that carries information in the peripheral nervous system
central nervous system
division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
spinal reflexes
simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system
somatic nervous system
subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles
autonomic nervous system
subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions
sympathetic nervous system
branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats; fight or flight response
parasympathetic nervous system
brance of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions and conserves the body's physical resources
endocrine system
a communication system composed of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormones
chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands
pituitary gland
endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes
adrenal glands
pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response
adrenal cortex
the outer portion of the adrenal gland
adrenal medulla
the inner portion of the adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
gonads
the endocrine gland that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes; ovaries in females and testes in males
brain
the main organ of the nervous system, made up of billions of neurons organized into a complex, integrated hierarchy of structures
electroencephalograph (EEG)
an instrument that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to record the brain's electrical activity
CAT scan (computerized axial tomography)
an instrument that produces two-dimensional pictures of brain structures using multiple x-rays that are reassembled by a computer
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner (MRI)
an instrument that provides three-dimensional, highly detailed views of the brain using electrical signals generated by the brain in response to magnetic fields
PET scan (positron emission tomography)
an instrument that provides color-coded images of brain activity by measuring the amount of glucose or oxygen used in different brain regions
brainstem
a region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain
hindbrain
a region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions
medulla
a hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing, circulation, and muscle tone
pons
a hindbrain strcutre that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum (a bridge over a PONd); helps coordinate and integrate movements on the two sides
cerebellum
a large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain responsible for muscle coordination, fine motor movements, and maintaining posture and equilibrium
reticular formation
a network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate information, attention, arousal and sleep
midbrain
the smallest brain region, which helps coordinate auditory and visual sensation
substantia nigra
an area of the midbrain that is involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons
forebrain
the largest and most complex brain region, which contrains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes, made up of four lobes
cerebral cortex
the wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers
cerebral hemisphere
the nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex
corpus callosum
a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them
temporal lobe
an area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples which is the primary receiving area of auditory information
occipital lobe
an area at the back of each cerebral cortex hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual information
parietal lobe
an area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the temporal lobe that processes somatic sensations
frontal lobe
the largest lobe of the cerebral cortex; processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved in thinking, planning, and emotional expression and control
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex where information from different brain centers is combined and integrated
thalamus
a forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all sense, except smell, and relays it to the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
a peanut-sized forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity
hippocampus
a curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories
amygdala
an almond-shaped forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and involved in emotion and memory
limbic system
a group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and that are invovled in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory
aphasia
the partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language due to brain injury or damage
split-brain operation
a surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum