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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
Spinal Cord - controls body movement
Brainstem - Vital functions, Sensory processing, control of movement
Forebrain - Cognition and memory, emotion, sensory processing, control of movement
Peripheral Nervous System
-Somatic Nervous System
-Automatic Nervous System
Automatic Nervous System
Sympathetic System - arouses body for action and mediates the fight or flight response.
Parasympathetic System - prepares body to rest and digest and reverses fight or flight responses
Somatic Nervous System
-Cranial and spinal nerves involved in signaling
-Transmits sensory info to the CNS
-Produces movement
Carries out brian's major functions.
Pyramidal cell (like a pyramid)
Aids and modulates the neuron's activities.
astrocyte (star)
Synaptic Cleft
electrical signal, space between dendrites and synapse
Myelin Sheath
fatty sheath, insulator that facilitates movement down the axon.
Nerve vs Tract
Several axons running together, nerve when outside the brain, tract when inside
White Matter
Areas of the nervous system rich in fat-sheathed neural axons
Gray Matter
Areas of the nervous system predominately composed of cell bodies and blood vessels.
a small cleft formed by folding of the cerebral cortex
a groove (bump) in the brain matter
large cleft in the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Salty fluid cushioning brain and spinal cord
A cavity in the brain that contains crebrospinal fluid.
Enlarged ventricles - sign of deterioration in the brain.
Dorsal (superior)
Above, view of brain
Middle, view of brain
Ventral (Inferior)
Below, view of brain
Anterior (Frontal)
Front, view of brain
Side, view of brain
Posterior (Caudal)
Tail, back, view of brain
Spinal Cord
Controls most body movement
Vital Functions
Regulatory Functions
Sensory processing
Control of movement
Cognition and memory
Sensory processing
Control of movement
Carry out brain's major functions, pyramidal cell
chemical released by a neuron into a synaptic cleft with an excitatory or inhibitory effect on the target neuron.
ie, Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine/Adrenaline, Acetylcholine
Regulates allostasis, regulates things in body to maintain sameness, Food and water intake, temperature, heart rate, emotional behavior, sexual behavior, hormone levels
Limbic System
Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cingulate Cortex
Fear and threat, reward/punishment
Associates emotion with situations, fight vs flight
Memory formation (short term memory), Spatial navigation
Cingulate Cortex
Emotional cortex
Communication between prefrontal cortex and amygdala and hippocampus
Over-active amygdala
perceives everything as a threat, either very anxious or very aggressive
Frontal Lobe
Higher level cognition, planning, language, esp prefrontal cortex
Temporal Lobe
Memory, emotion, Visual recognition, auditory
AMPE (audio, memory, p, emotion)
Parietal Lobe
Spatial processing, sensory integration, perception as a whole
Occipital Lobe
Visual information
Corpus Callosum
connects the hemispheres of the brain
Sympathetic System
arouses the body for action and mediates the fight or flight response
Parasympathetic System
Prepares body to "rest and digest" and reverses fight or flight responses.
combined two cells, stage lasts from fertilization until implantation, *2 weeks
Rapid cell division
lasts from implantation until 8 weeks, major development occurs in all organs and systems of the body. Cell division, migration, differentiation, and cell death.
9 weeks until birth.
Development of physical structures, Increasing levels of behavior, sensory experience, and learning
Creation of germ cells, cell goes from 4n to producing 4 bodies with N amount of chromosomes. (4 sperm and 1 egg w/3 polar bodies)
Germ cells
sex cells, sperm and egg
combination of sperm and egg, chemical reaction seals egg from other sperm. 1/500,000,000 makes it in
Cell division
divides into new cells rapidly creating the blastocyte
ball of cells that will eventually form into the placenta and the baby (looks like an eyeball)
when the blastocyte connects with the wall of the uterus
cells differentiate into outer cells and inner cell mass. Inner cell mass forms into 3 layers, Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
Inner cell mass
forms the baby
top layer of inner cell mass, will form nervous system and face
middle layer, will become bones, muscles, and organs
bottom layer, will become digestive system, lungs, and glands
the bag the baby is in, fluid filled
Outer cells (of blastocyte)
form support system, ie the placenta and umbilical cord
Neural Induction
the process of transforming the undifferentiated tissue lining the dorsal side ofthe ectoderm into nervous system tissue (top layer of ectoderm)
Neural plate
Thickened region of the ectodermal layer that gives rise to the neural tube (top layer of ectoderm)
22nd-26th day
Development of the neural tube and formation of the CNS
Neural tube
structure in teh early stage of brain development from which the brain and spinal cord develop
forms spine, backbone
Cephalic disorders
Congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of the budding nervous system.
Neural tube defects
correlated with folic acid deficiencies
by 24 days of gestation
Neural tube fails to close at anterior end
Lack of skull closure & forebrain development
Usually blind, deaf, unconscious, and unable to feel pain, reflex actions my occur
~1000-2000 births each year
females more than males
parts of brain missing
most do not survive
No frontal brain
Develop brain stem but not prosencephon
Similar look to anencephaly but intact skull, skin, hair
only 1 brain section (no hemispheres)
fails to cleave into hemispheres and lobes
sigle spherical cerebrum with single ventricle
Spectrum of malfromations of the brain and face
1/2 cases has a chromosomal cause
Spina Bifida
during 1st month
Back end of tube fails to close, infant's skin doesn't close over spinal cord
Spinal opening can be surgically repaired shortly after birth, but the nerve damage is permanent
Leads to paralysis
Water on the brain
Neural Stem cell
A self-renewing multipotential cell that gives rise to neurons and glia
Cells lining ventricle
Ventricular Zone
Lining of the neural stem cells surrounding the ventricles in adults
Progenitor Cell
Precursor cell derived from a stem cell; it migrates and produces a neruon or glial cell
Neurotrophic Factor
A chemical compound that acts to support growth and differentiation in developing neurons
Chemical signal - turns genes on - specific proteins are made - specific cells
Neurogenesis/cell birth
by cell division beginning by end of 1st prenatal month
peaking between 3rd and 4th prenatal month, symmetrical and asymmetrical phase,
Mostly complete by 18 weeks post conception
Too few neurons are produced
Very small brain & normal or reduced head size
Genetic (autosomal recessive) or environmental (rubella, irradiation, maternal alcoholism, excessive vitamin A, HIV)
Varying degrees of mental and physical retardation, speech may be delayed
Often dwarfed or underweight
No treatment available
Too many neurons produced
Abnormally large, heavy, and unusually malfunctioning brain
Genetic, often autosomal dominant
Convulsive disorders and seizures
Although it may be associated with mental retardation, in approximately on-half of cases mental development is normal (50% are ok)
Unilateral Megalencephaly
One side of brain is too large
Neural Migration
Begins 6-8 weeks after conception, completed by 24-29 weeks
Damage has more seious consequences
Neurons travel on glial fibers to their destinations within the developing CNS
A hormone called reelin signals that the neuron has reached its destination and the neuron gets off the glial fiber
hormone that signals that the neuron has reached its final destination, and it gets off the glial fiber
Radial Migration
Down to Up
Neurons travel along the radial glia from proliferation zones to outer areas of the CNS
70-80% use this pathway
birth date and location of progenitor cell determine where the neuron will reside
Permits neurons to travel parallel to the surface of the developing brain & enter and exit different brain regions
Environmental cues influence the cell placement
3rd and 4th months
Smooth brain (few or no gyri)
Cause can be both genetic and environmental
Symptoms:unusual facial apperance, difficulty swallowing, failure to thrive, and severe psychomotor retardation, seizures
Most common respitory problems