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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the general features of animals?
1 are heterotrophs - organism that obtains energy from organic substances

2 multicellular

3 cells SANS cell walls

4 most are able to move

5 animals are diverse in form of habitat

6 most produce sexually

7 have a characteristic pattern og embryonic development

8 cells are organized into tissues (except sponges)
What are the 5 key transitions that can be noted in animal evolution?
body cavity
Taxonomist generally divide the kingdom animalia into what 2 categories?
Parazoa -no tissues

Eumetazoa - tissues
Animals with symmetry belong to which two groups?
radial symmetry - ectoderm and endoderm; has a central adxis that divides organism in several halves

bilateral symmetry - organism has a line of symmetry or mirror image with a right and left portion
The bilateral group of symmetry produces which three germ layers?
ectoderm = skin and nervous system
endoderm = lining of gut and part of digestive organs
mesoderm = organs, muslces, bone, connective tissues
What is cephalization?
the existence of a "head" portion on an organism through bilateral symmetry

a top and bottom
What is a blastula?
a ball of cells
What are the three basic body plans/cavities that have evolved from bilateral symmetry?
acoelomates = no body cavity

pseudocoelomates = body cavity called the pseudocoel located between mesoderm and endoderm

coelomates = fluid-filled body cavity called coelom that develops entirely; within mesoderm
What is special about the coelomate body cavity?
it has a circulatory system

open = heart mo vessels
closed - heart and vessels
Based on the bilateral development which two divisions are organism placed under?
protosomes (first mouth) and deuterostomes (second mouth)
List the development of a protosome?

spiral cleavage

determinated development = will always develop into specific tissue; seperation kills it

blastopore develops mouth

formation of coelom
List the development of a deuterostome?

radial cleavage
indeterminate development = can develop different tissues depending upon seperation from other cells

blstopore develops anus

formation of coelom
What are 2 important advantages of segmentation?
damage to a segmented body part will not prove fatal = organism is made out of duplicated segments = worm

What are the prorifera and its structure?
the parazoa (lack tissues)sponges

simplest animal
choanocytes = line interior and move H2O in and out
amboebocytes -= produces spongin and makes gametes
What is Rdiata and what invertabrate is under this category?
presence of tissues = endo and ectoderm

no meso = no organs

are symmetrical

Describe the Cnidarians:
- are under radiata so have epidermis (ecto) and gastrodermis (endo)
- radiata symmetry
- 2 body forms:
medusae = free swimming
polyp = sessile
- tentacles, gastrovascular cavity, and mouth
What are the bilateria groups?

HAVE 3 connective tissues = organs
What invertebrates are grouped under the acoelomates?
platyhelminthes/flatworms and nemertea/ribbonworms
Describe the platyhelminthes/flatworms uner the acoelomates:
- bilateral = 3 connective tissues
- 3 groups:
- acoelomate = no body cavity
- eyespots/ocelli = nervous system
- sac-like incomplete gut w/ only one opening

simplest animals in which organs occur
What two categories are under pseudocoelomates?
Describe the nematodes of the pseudocoelomates:
- body filled cavities seperate endo and meso
- bilaterally symmetrical
- cuticle
- mouth to anus
- sexual
Describe the rotifers of the pseudocoelomates:
- body filled cavities seperate endo and meso
- bilaterally symmetrical
- complete complex gut from mouth to anus