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33 Cards in this Set

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Acetylcholine
Chemical that causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart, transits messages to brain and spinal cord
Dopamine
Stimulates hypothalamus to make hormones. Affects alertness/movement
Serotonin
Associated with sexual activity, concentration, moods, and emotions.
Endorphins
The brain’s “pain killers”
GABA
Inhibits firing of neurons
Nodes of Ranvier
Spaces between segments of myelin
Excitatory
Neurotransmitters cause neuron on other side of synapse to generate an action potential (to fire)
Inhibitory
Synapse reduces or prevents neural impulses
Reflex
Simplest form of behavior; involves an impulse conduction over a few neurons. Ex. Blinking, sneezing, knee jerk
Reflex arc
Pathway of impulse conduction
Afferent neurons
Transmit impulses from sensory receptors to spinal cord/brain
Interneurons
Intervene between sensory and motor neurons; located within brain and spinal cord
Efferent neurons
Transmit impulses from sensory or intherneurons to muscle cells that contract or to gland cells that secrete.
Effectors
Muscle and gland cells
Pineal Gland
Produces melatonin that helps regulate circadian rhythms and is associated with seasonal affective disorders
Hypothalamus
Produces hormones that stimulate or inhibit secretion of hormones by the pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
“Master gland” Produces stimulating hormones that promote secretion by other glands. Ex. TSH, ACTH, FSH, ADH,
Thyroid Glad
Produces thyroxine, which stimulates and maintains metabolic activities.
Parathyroids
Produce parathyroid hormone that helps maintain calcium ion level in blood
Adrenal Glands
Produces steroid hormones such as cortisolProduces adrenaline
Pancreas
Insulin and glucagons regulate blood sugar
Ovaries/Testes
Necessary for reproduction/development of secondary sex characteristics
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating hormone
ACTH
Stimulates adrenal cortex
FSH
Stimulates sperm or egg production
ADH
Helps body to retain water
Turner’s Syndrome
Females have only one X sex chromosome; Lack ovaries, normal intelligence, webbed neck,
Klinefelter’s Syndrome
Males have XXY zygote; male secondary sex characteristics fail to develop, but breast tissue forms.
Down Syndrome
3 copies of chromosome-21; mental retardation, poor coordination,
Tay-Sachs Syndrome
Progressive loss of nervous function and death in babies.
Albinism
Failure to synthesize or store pigment, abnormal nerve pathways to the brain.
Phenylketonuria
Infant lacks an enzyme to process this amino acid, which can build up and poison cells of the nervous system.
Huntington’s Disease
Dominant gene defect; Degeneration of the nervous system.