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191 Cards in this Set

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Member of the mammalian order Primates, including prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans, defined by a suite of anatomical and behavioral traits.
A change in the frequency of a gene or a trait in a population over multiple generations.
biological anthropology
The study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework.
A member of the primate family Hominidae, distinguished by bipedal posture and, in more recently evolved species, large brain.
A trait that increases the reproductive success of an organism, produced by natural selection in the context of a particular environment.
The study of the fossil record of ancestral humans and their primate kin.
The study of the skeleton
The study of diseases in ancestral human populations.
forensic anthropology
The study of human remains applied to a legal context.
The study of nonhuman primates and their anatomy, genetics, behavior, and ecology.
human biology
Subfield of biological anthropology dealing with human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes, and human genetics.
physical anthropology
The study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework.
The study of humankind in a cross-cultural context. Anthropology includes the subfields cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, archaeology, and biological anthropology.
The sum total of learned traditions, values, and beliefs that groups of people, and a few species of highly intelligent animals, possess.
biocultural anthropology
The study of the interaction between biology and culture, which plays a role in most human traits.
cultural anthropology
The study of human societies, especially in a cross-cultural context; the subdivision of anthropology that includes ethnology, archaeology, and linguistics.
The study of human societies, their traditions, rituals, beliefs, and the differences between societies in these traits.
practice of cultural anthropology. Ethonographers study the minute-to-minute working of human societies, especially non-Western societies.
The study of the material culture of past peoples.
The objects, from tools to art, left by earlier generations of people.
material culture
The objects or artifacts of past human societies.
linguistic anthropology
The study of language, its origins, and use; also called anthropological linguistics.
A conclusion that follows logically from a set of observations.
The gathering of scientific information by watching a phenomenon.
A preliminary explanation of a phenomenon. Hypothesis formation is the first step of the scientific method.
The testing of a hypothesis.
scientific method
Standard scientific research procedure in which a hypothesis is stated, data are collected to test it, and the hypothesis is either supported or refuted.
The scientific evidence produced by an experiment or by observation, from which scientific conclusions are made.
Able to be shown to be false.
A conceptual framework useful for understanding a body of science.
Stasis, lack of change, fixity.
Ancient belief that people are derived from multiple creations
Ancient belief that all people are derived from a single creation.
The science of biological classification.
binomial nomenclature
Linnaean naming system for all organisms, consisting of a genus and species label.
A group of organisms assigned to a particular category.
Theory that there have been multiple creations interspersed by great natural disasters such as Noah’s flood.
theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Discredited theory of evolutionary change proposing that changes that can occur during the lifetime of an individual can be passed on to the next generation (Lamarckian).
Soviet-era research program that tried to apply Lamarckian thinking to agricultural production.
Theory that the same gradual geological process we observe today was operating in the past.
adaptive radiation
The diversification of one founding species into multiple species and niches.
natural selection
Differential reproductive success over multiple generations.
Reproductive success.
An interbreeding group of organisms.
An alteration in the DNA, which may or may not alter the function of a cell. If it occurs in a gamete, it may be passed from one generation to the next.
Creation science
A creationist attempt to refute the evidence of evolution.
Intelligent design
A creationist school of thought that proposes that natural selection cannot account for the diversity and complexity of form and function seen in nature.
Single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, in which the genetic material is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nucleus.
A cell that possesses a well-organized nucleus.
In eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell in which the genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell (cytoplasm) by a plasma membrane.
In a eukaryotic cell, the region within the cell membrane that surrounds the nucleus; it contains organelles, which carry out the essential functions of the cell, such as energy production, metabolism, and protein synthesis.
somatic cells
The cells of the body that are not sex cells.
The sex cells: sperm in males and eggs (or ova) in females.
stem cells
Undifferentiated cells found in the developing embryo that can be induced to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types of tissues. Also found in adults, although adult stem cells are not as totipotent as embryonic stem cells.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded molecule that is the carrier of genetic information. Each strand is composed of a linear sequence of nucleotides; the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds that form between complementary bases.
Complex molecules formed from chains of amino acids (polypeptide) or form a complex of polypeptides. They function as structural molecules, transport molecules, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones.
protein synthesis
The assembly of proteins from amino acids, which occurs at ribosomes in the cytoplasm and is based on information carried by mRNA.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Single-stranded nucleic acid that performs critical functions during protein synthesis and comes in three forms: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA.
Organelles in the cytoplasm of the cell where energy production for the cell takes place. Contains its own DNA.
endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle in the cytoplasm consisting of a folded membrane.
Structures composed primarily of RNA, which are found on the endoplasmic reticulum. They are the site of protein synthesis.
Molecular building block of nucleic acids DNA and RNA; consists of a phosphate, sugar, and base.
Variable component of the nucleotides that form the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, the bases are adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. In RNA, uracil replaces thymine.
A complex protein that is a catalyst for chemical processes in the body.
Errors in DNA replication that are not corrected and lead to permanent changes in the DNA of the cell.
Protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen.
A natural substance (often a protein) produced by specialized cells in one location of the body that influences the activity or physiology of cells in a different location.
amino acids
Molecules that form the basic building blocks of protein.
A molecule made up of a chain of amino acids.
genetic code
The system whereby the nucleotide triplets in DNA and RNA contain the information for synthesizing proteins from the 20 amino acids.
A triplet of nucleotide bases in mRNA that specifies an animo acid or the initiation or termination of a polypeptide sequence.
The fundamental unit of heredity. Consists of a sequence of DNA bases that carries the information for synthesizing a protein (or polypeptide), and occupies a specific chromosomal locus.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Strand of RNA synthesized in the nucleus as a complement to a specific gene (transcription). It carries the information for the sequence of amino acids to make a specific protein into the cytoplasm, where at a ribosome it is read and a protein molecule is synthesized (translation).
transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA molecules that bind to specific amino acids and transport them to ribosomes to be used during protein synthesis.
The diffuse form of DNA as it exists during the interphase of the cell cycle.
Somatic cell division in which a single cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells.
Cell division that occurs in the testes and ovaries that leads to the formation of sperm and ova (gametes).
Discrete structures composed f condensed DNA and supporting proteins.
Condensed and constructed region of a chromosome. During mitosis and meiosis, location where sister chromatids attach to one another.
diploid number
Full complement of paired chromosomes in a somatic cell. In humans, the diploid number if 46 (23 pairs of different chromosomes).
haploid number
The number of chromosomes found in a gamete, representing one from each pair found in a diploid somatic cell. In humans, the haploid number is 23.
homologous chromosomes
Members of the same pair of chromosomes (or autosomes). Homologous chromosomes undergo crossing over during meiosis.
The location of a gene on a chromosome. The locus for a gene is identified by the number of the chromosome on which it is found and its position on the chromosome.
Alternative versions of a gene. Different alleles are distinguished from one another by their different effects of phenotypic expression of the same gene.
Having the same allele at the loci for a gene on both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes (or autosomes).
Having two different alleles at the loci for a gene on a pair of homologous chromosomes (or autosomes).
A fertilized egg.
crossing over
Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during the first prophase of meiosis; mechanism for genetic recombination.
The rearrangement of genes on homologous chromosomes that occurs during crossing over in meiosis. Source of variation arising out of sexual reproduction; important for increasing rates of natural selection.
The complete chromosomal complement of an individual; usually based on a photograph of the chromosomes visualized under the microscope.
Any of the chromosomes other than sex chromosomes.
sex chromosomes
In mammals, chromosomes X and Y, with XX producing females and XY producing males.
nondisjunction error
The failure of homologous chromosomes (chromatids) to separate properly during cell division. When it occurs during meiosis, it may lead to the formation of gametes that are missing a chromosome or have an extra copy of a chromosome.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Method for amplifying DNA sequences using the Taq polymerase enzyme. Can potentially produce millions or billions of copies of a DNA segment starting from a very small number of target DNA.
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Small loop of DNA found in the mitochondria. It is clonally and maternally inherited.
structural genes
Genes that contain the information to make a protein.
regulatory genes
Guide the expression of structural genes, without coding for a protein themselves.
The genetic makeup of an individual. Genotype can refer to the entire genetic complement or more narrowly to the alleles present at a specific locus on two homologous chromosomes.
An observable or measurable feature of an organism. Phenotypes can be anatomical, biochemical, or behavioral.
ABO blood type system
Refers to the genetic system for one of the proteins found on the surface of red blood cells. Consists of one gene with three cells: A, B, and O.
In a diploid organism, refers to an allele that must be present in two copies (homozygous) in order to be expressed.
In a diploid organism, an allele that is expressed when present only on one of a pair of homologous chromosomes.
In a diploid organism, two different alleles of a gene that are both expressed in a heterozygous individual.
blending inheritance
Discredited nineteenth-century idea that genetic factors from the parents averaged out or blended together when they were passed on to offspring.
particulate inheritance
The concept of heredity based on the transmission of genes (alleles) according to Mendelian principles.
Mendel's law of segregation
The two alleles of a gene found on each of a pair of chromosomes segregate independently of one another into sex cells.
Mendel's law of independent assortment
Genes found on different chromosomes are sorted into sex cells independently of one another.
Genes that are found on the same chromosome are said to be linked. The closer together two genes are on a chromosome, the greater the linkage and the less likely they are to be separated during crossing over.
point mutation
A change in the base sequence of a gene that results from the change of a single base to a different base.
sickle cell disease
An autosomal recessive disease caused by a point mutation in an allele that codes for one of the polypeptide chains of the hemoglobin protein.
autosomal recessive disease
A disease caused by a recessive allele; one copy of the allele must be inherited from each parent for the disease to develop.
insertion mutation
A change in the base sequence of a gene that results from the addition of one or more base pairs in the DNA.
deletion mutation
A change in the base sequence of a gene that results in the loss of one or more base pairs in the DNA.
trinucleotide repeat diseases
A family of autosomal dominant diseases that is caused my the insertion of multiple copes if a three-base pair sequence (CAG) that codes for the amino acid glutamine. Typically, the more copies inserted in the gene, the more serious the disease.
autosomal dominant disease
A disease that is caused by a dominant allele: Only one copy needs to be inherited from either parent for the disease to develop.
x-linked disorders
Genetic conditions that result from mutations to genes on the X chromosome. They are almost always expressed males, who only have one copy of the X chromosome; in females, the second X chromosome containing the normally functioning allele protects them from developing X-linked disorders.
A diagram used in the study of human genetics that shows the transmission of a genetic trait over several generations of a family.
qualitative variation
Phenotypic variation that can be characterized as belonging to discrete, observable categories.
quantitative variation
Phenotypic variation that is characterized by the distribution of continuous variation (expressed using a numerical measure) within a population (for example, in a bell curve).
polygenic traits
Phenotypic traits that result from the combined action of more than one gene; most complex traits are polygenic.
The phenomenon of a single gene having multiple phenotypic effects.
The proportion of total phenotypic variability observed for a given trait that can be ascribed to genetic factors.
twin method
A method for estimating the heritability of a phenotypic trait by comparing the concordance rates of identical and fraternal twins.
phenylketonuria (PKU)
An autosomal recessive condition that leads to the accumulation of large quantities of the amino acid phenylalanine, which causes mental retardation and other phenotypic abnormalities.
directional selection
Natural selection that drives evolutionary change by selecting for greater or lesser frequency of a given trait in a population.
stabilizing selection
Selection that maintains a certain phenotype by selecting against deviations from it.
gene flow
Movement of genes between populations.
Mating between close relatives.
genetic drift
Random changes in gene frequency in a population.
founder effect
A component of genetic drift theory, stating that new populations that become isolated from the parent population carry only the genetic variation of the founders.
genetic bottleneck
Temporary dramatic reduction in size of a population or species.
sexual selection
Differential reproductive success within one sex of any species.
sexual dimorphism
Difference in shape, size, or color between the sexes.
reproductive potential
The possible offspring output by one sex.
reproductive variance
A measure of variation from the mean of a population in the reproductive potential of one sex compared with the other.
Branch of biology that describes patterns of organismal variation.
Similarity of traits resulting from shared ancestry.
Having similar traits due to similar use, not due to shared ancestry.
convergent evolution
Similar form or function brought about by natural selection under similar environments rather than shared ancestry.
Method of classification using ancestral and derived traits to distinguish patterns of evolution within lineages.
Branching diagram showing evolved relationships among members of a lineage.
An interbreeding group of animals or plants that are reproductively isolated through anatomy, ecology, behavior, or geographic distribution from all other groups.
Formation of one or more new species via reproductive isolation.
biological species concept
Defines species as interbreeding populations reproductively isolated from other populations.
evolutionary species concept
Defines species as evolutionary lineages with their own unique identity.
ecological species concept
Defines species base on the uniqueness of their ecological niche.
recognition species concept
Defines species based on unique traits or behaviors that allow members of one species to identify each other for mating.
reproductive isolating mechanisms (RIMs)
Any factor – behavioral, ecological, or anatomical – that prevents a male and female of two different species from hybridizing.
Evolution of a trait or a species into another over a period of time.
Evolution through the branching of a species or a lineage.
allopatric speciation
Speciation occurring via geographic isolation.
parapatric speciation
Speciation occurring when two populations have continuous distributions and some phenotypes in that distribution are more favorable than others.
sympatric speciation
Speciation occurring in the same geographic location.
Darwinian view of slow, incremental, evolutionary change.
Evolution of major phenotypic changes over relatively short time periods.
punctuated equilibrium
Model of evolution characterized by rapid bursts of change, followed by long periods of stasis.
A premise that all aspects of an organism have been molded by natural selection to a form optimal for enhancing reproductive success.
Paradigm that an organism is the sum of many evolved parts and that organisms can best be understood through an adaptationist approach.
null hypothesis
The starting assumption for scientific inquiry that one’s research results occur by random chance. One’s hypothesis must challenge this initial assumption.
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
The theoretical distribution of alleles in a given population in the absence of evolution, expressed as a mathematical equation.
group selection
Notion largely discredited by the rise of Darwinian theory proposing that animals act for the good of their social group or their species.
kin selection
Principle that animals behave preferentially toward their genetic kin.
inclusive fitness
Reproductive success of an organism plus the fitness of its close kin.
polytypic species
Species that consist of a number of separate breeding populations, each varying in some genetic trait.
A local, interbreeding population that is defined in terms of its genetic composition (for example, allele frequencies).
A group of local populations that share part of the geographic range of a species, and can be differentiated from other subspecies based on one or more phenotypic traits.
– In biological taxonomy, same thing as a subspecies; when applied to humans, sometimes incorporates both cultural and biological factors. The term is not used by biological anthropologists today.
The study of how traditional cultures classify objects and organisms in the natural world.
The view that the environment has great powers to directly shape the anatomy of individual organisms.
A prejudicial belief that members of one ethnic group are superior in some way to those of another.
The measurement of different aspects of the body, such as stature or skin color.
ethnic group
A human group defined in terms of sociological, cultural, and linguistic traits.
population genetics
The study of genetic variation within and between groups of organisms.
The study of evolutionary phenomena that occur within a species.
Two or more distinct phenotypes (at the genetic or anatomical levels) that exist within a population.
The distribution of a trait or allele across geographic space.
maternal-fetal incompatibility
Occurs when the mother produces antibodies against an antigen (for example, a red blood cell surface protein) expressed in the fetus that she does not possess.
rhesus (Rh) system
Blood type system that can cause hemolytic anemia of the newborn through maternal-fetal incompatability if the mother is Rh-negative and the child is Rh-positive.
human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system
Class of blood group markers formed by proteins expressed on the surface of white blood cells (leukocytes).
autoimmune disease
Occur when a body’s immune system attacks its own tissues.
Combinations of alleles (or at the sequence level, mutations) that are found together in an individual.
Duffy blood group
Red blood cell system useful for studying admixture between African- and European-derived populations.
An evolutionary tree indicating relatedness and divergence of taxonomic groups.
lactose intolerant
The inability to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk; most adult mammals (including humans) are lactose intolerant as adults.
balanced polymorphism
A stable polymorphism in a population in which natural selection prevents any of the alternative phenotypes (or underlying alleles) from becoming fixed or lost.
frequency-dependent balanced polymorphism
Balanced polymorphism that is maintained because one (or more) of the alternative phenotypes has a selective advantage over the other phenotypes only when it is present in the population below a certain frequency.
heterozygous advantage
With reference to a particular genetic system, the situation in which heterozygotes have a selective advantage over homozygotes (for example, sickle cell disease); a mechanism for maintaining a balanced polymorphism.
The ability of an individual organism to make positive anatomical or physiological changes after short- or long-term exposure to stressful environmental conditions.
Short-terms changes in physiology that occur in an organism in response to changes in environmental conditions.
Bergmann's rule
Stipulates that body size is larger in colder climates to conserve body temperature.
Allen's rule
Stipulates that in warmer climates, the limbs of the body are longer relative to body size to dissipate body heat.