• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/89

Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
monogenists
hold belief that all humans have common ancestry; variation by environment, climate
polygenists
multiple "initial" parents; different human groups (race)
Carolus Linnaeus (history of race and biological anthropology)
polygenist. categorized humans into:
Homo europaeus
Homo afer
Homo asiaticus
Homo americanus
Johann Blumenbach
naturalist; published "On the Natural Varieties of Mankind" 1776

most famous for studies involving craniometrics

divided humans into:
Caucasian
Mongolian
Negroid
Malayan
Americana
Samuel Morton
measured cranial capacity (volume)
Stephan J. Gould
challenge's Morton's experimental method
Paul Broca
nueroanatomy; measured brains themselves
intelligence
development of IQ test contribute to racial bias in immigration qualifications
Franz Boas (history of race and biological anthropology)
"father of American anthropology"

German emigrant

examine head shape of recent immigrants and that of his children

finds: significant difference
implications: environmental influences dictate, so classifying is ghey
racial typology
dividing humans into ethnic groups
craniometrics
technique of measuring bones of the skull
eugenics
study and practice of selective breeding of humans
Richard Lewtontin
geneticist; found traits nonconcordant
nonconcordant traits
demonstrates lack of genetic diversity in humans regardless of "race"
growth
body's increase in size
development
progression from immaturity to maturity
Philibert de Montbeillard
French naturalist; recorded son's rate of growth
curve of growth
visualization of growth rate during human lifetime
growth velocity
speed with which organism grows in size (usually measured per year)
stressors
factors that can cause stress in organism, affecting proper functioning and homeostasis
prenatal stage (
3 trimesters over 40 weeks (embryonic, fetal, third)
prenatal stage: embryonic
fertilization to 8 weeks
.recognizably human
.high risk - only 50% make it past 8 weeks
prenatal stage: fetal
8 weeks to six months
.rapid rate of growth
.most weight, length, systems fully grow
prenatal stage: third
six months to birth
.rapid growth of internal organs
.fetus fully responsive to external stimuli
postnatal stage
birth to senesence (neonatal, infancy, 3 to 7 years, juvenile, adolesence)
adult stage
year 20 to end of childbearing years (when growth stops, save tissue maintainance)
senesence
organism's biological changes in later adulthood
puberty (adolesence)
commencement of sexual maturation: menarche, sexual dimorphism, etc.
menarche
onset of menstration in adolescent female
sexual dimorphism
difference in physical attributes between male and female of a species
secular trend
phenotypic change [in population] (ex. height) due to multiple factors
motor skills
performance of complex movements and actions that require control of nerves and muscles
cognitive abilities
capacity of brain to perceive, process, judge information from surrounding environment
weaning
process of substituting other foods for milk produced by mother
genetic adaptation
occurs at population level via natural selection
developmental (ontogenetic) adaptation
at individual level during critical period of growth/development; capacity to make change inherited; irreversible
physiological adaptation (acclimatization)
at individual level; can occur anytime in person's life; reversible
cultural (behavioral) adaptation
use of material culture to make living possible in certain settings
functional adaptations
biological adjustments that occur within individual's lifetime (inc. developmental adaptations, acclimatizations)
homeothermic
organism's ability to maintain constant body temperature despite variation in environmental temperature
hypothermia
condition in which organism's body temperature fall below normal range; may lead to loss of proper body functions, death
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
rate at which body expends energy to maintain basic body functions
high altitude stress
stresses include hypoxia (body tissues receive insufficient oxygen), high UV radiation, cold, wind, nutritional deprivation
ecological anthropology
study of human-environmental (culture-nature) relationships
vertical farming
method used in Andes that allows for cultivation of potatoes
quechua
language spoken primarily in the Andes
potatoes
staple crop in Andes agriculture
llamas
pack animals kept in Andes for meat and wool
high altitude sickness
sickness occurring at high altitudes; symptoms include headache, nausea, peripheral edema
heat stress
conditions due to overexposure or overexertion in high temperature environment
vasodilation
increase in blood vessels' diameter due to action of a nerve or a drug; can also occur in response to hot temperatures
vasoconstriction
decrease in blood vessels' diameter in response to cold temperatures; body aims to direct blood flow to core
Bergmann's rule
principle that animal's size is heat-related; smaller bodies adapted to hot environments, larger bodies to cold
Allen's rule
principle that animal's limb lengths are heat related; longer limbs adapted to hot environments, shorter limbs to cold
Gloger's rule
populations have lighter colouration in colder climates; darker colouration in hotter climates
melanocytes
melanin-producing cells located in skin's epidermis
vitamin D
steroid hormone that regulates calcium absorption and mineralization of the skeleton
rickets
condition in which poorly mineralized bones become soft, are prone to fracture, can warp or bow
skin reflectance
amount of light reflected from the skin that can be measured and used to assess skin color
melanin
specialized cells that produce skin pigment
total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)
number of calories used by an organism's body during a 24-hour period
macronutrients
essential chemical nutrients, including fat, carbohydrates, protein, that a body needs to live and to function normally
micronutrients
essential substances, such as minerals or vitamins, needed in very small amounts to maintain normal body functioning
malnutrition
condition that occurs when body does not get enough nutrients; caused by improper or inadequate diet and nutrition
undernutrition
type of malnutrition caused by inadequate food intake or body's inability to make use of needed nutrients
Kwashiorkor
type of malnutrition caused by insufficient protein in diet
marasmus
form of emaciation and wasting in an infant due to protein-energy malnutrition
scurvy
disease resulting from vitamin C deficiency
overnutrition
condition that occurs with too many calories, resulting in excess stored fat
type 2 diabetes
chronic disease marked by high levels of sugar in blood
hypercholesterolemia
presence of high levels of cholesterol in an organism's blood
catch up growth
rapid growth in infants or young children born small for their gestational age
Franz Boas (bone biology and function)
founded historical particularism
historical particularism
considered first American anthropological school of thought; argues that each culture has unique identity, and must therefore be seen as discrete units
Wolff's law
biomechanical stress placed on an individual's bones during developing years leads to higher bone mass; bone mass is produced where needed, taken away where not needed
rigidity
bone strength
osteoblasts
cells that lay down osteocytes
osteocytes
somatic cells that make up bone tissue
Haversian system
lengthwise canals that transport nourishment to bone tissues
cortical bone
compact bone; the outer surface of the bone
bone mass
mineral content, density of bone
remodeling
bone replacement and restoration; removal done by osteoclasts, replacement by osteoblasts
cancellous bone
spongy bone; trabecular bone; occupies interior region of bone
lamellar bone
bone structure that forms in layers (lamellae)
periosteum
layer of tissue on the outside of the medullary cavity
endosteum
layer of tissue on the inside of the medullary cavity
medullary cavity
central cavity of the bone shaft where the red and yellow bone marrow run
osteoporosis
loss of bone mass due to age; bones become brittle, porous, prone to fractures
osteopenia
thinning of the outer cortex of the bone