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203 Cards in this Set

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Phenotypic plasticity
Phenotype combination of genotype and environment

Natural physical manifestation of genotype
Acclimatization
Physiological responses to changes in the environment that occur during an individual’s lifetime. The capacity for acclimatization may typify an entire species or population, and because it’s under genetic influence, it’s subject to evolutionary factors such as natural selection or genetic drift.

How our body adjusts in a lifetime

Can be long term, short term, developmental acclimatization or permanent
3 types of Acclimatization
temporary and rapid adjustment to an environmental change (ex: Tanning)
• increase in hemoglobin production- people who live at lower elevations and travel to higher ones
• these are temporary- tans fade and hemoglobin drops

permanent
• after exposure the physical adjustments don’t disappear

developmental acclimatization
• results from exposure to an environmental challenge during growth and development
• individual’s physiology- not reversible
• EX: physiological responses we see in life long residents of high altitudes
skin color and solar radiation
light, solar radiation and skin determines skin color.

Adaptation through natural selection

Most pigmentation in tropical countries

Skin color- Bottom of epidermis
Influences skin color
Hemoglobin

Protein carotene

The pigment melanin
Melanin
gives body brown color

granular substance produced by specialized cells called melanocytes (outer layer of skin)

acts as a built in sun screen

formed by pigment cells (Melatocytes)

absorbs UV rays
all humans have the same amount of...
Melanin

but very in amount of melanin and size of melanin granules produced
African American’s have more concentrated
melanocytes
Melanin protects us from over exposure (which causes mutation in skin cells)
these mutations lead to skin cancer

untreated spread to other organs and even result to death
vitamin D production and deficiency
o essential for mineralization and normal growth of bones during infancy and childhood
because it enables the body to absorb calcium from dietary sources

o able to synthesize it through the interaction of UV light and a form of cholesterol found in skin cells
in past we generated and produced Vitamin D from UV rays
compromise between Vitamin D and Cancer
rickets
insufficient amounts of Vitamin D during childhood

leads to bone deformities (mostly weight bearing bones- legs and pelvis)
temperature/humidity and phenotypic response
Cold Stress
-pull in blood to keep body warm
-shivering raises metabolism

Heat stress
-blood comes outward
sweat

oAcclimatize by adding layers, by fire, and drinking warm
Body Size
Bergmann and Allen's Rule
Bergmann and Allen’s Rule
Weather determines body shape and size

•Closer to the poles the people are short and thicker
•Near the equator, people are tall and thin
Bergmann's Rule
o Surface Area and Volume
o As you increase volume your surface area shrinks
Allen's rule
Eskimo, Maasi

o Lengths of Appendages (limbs)
o Short arms lock in heat
Adaptability
An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specifically as a result of natural selection)

our ability to adapt depending on genetics
High altitude stress
oxygen levels increase @ high altitudes

effects
low air pressure
solar radiation
low humidity
limited food

hypoxia occurs
migrant models
look @ people from coast that moved to high altitudes
Hypoxia
oxygen deprivation is a result of high altitude stress
-reduces available oxygen
dietary adaptations
lactose tolerance
Lactose tolerance
the inability to digest fresh milk products, caused by the discontinued production of lactase --- the enzyme that breaks down lactose, or milk sugar
_______ is used to digest milk
lactace
Diseases
Cell Maligancy
infections
Genetic
-sickle cell anemia
-diabetes
-vitamin deficiencies
-heart disease
Cell malignancy
cancer
Infections
stimulated by cultural factors
-before people crowded together there were less diseases
Types of Infections
HIV
Chromosome 6
Lymphocytes
Bubonic Plague
Immune respose to infections is a
defense mechanism
Lymphocytes
Determine response
-B Cells
-T cells
Chromosome 6
Major histocompatibility complex

where immune responses are genetically programmed
B Cells
produce antibodies binds
T Cells
Attach directly or call b cells or end response
foreign antigens
provoke an immune response
Antibodies (immunoglobins)
o proteins that are produced by some types of immune cells and that serve as major components of the immune cells. Antibodies recognize and attach to foreign antigens on bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. the other immune cells destroy the invading organisms
Radiation
leads to inheriting new genetics genetic diseases

increases population crowding/density

artificial and natural
Artificial radiation
nuclear weapons
waste
x-rays
Natural radiation
cosmic rays
radium
thorium
Mutagen
causes mutation
Aristotle
*Nothing ever changes.

Aristotle held back biology and medicine for 1500 years.

The idea that nothing ever changes meant that evolution was impossible so biology and medicine couldn’t move forward.
“All things living are imperfect reflections of idealized image. Even humans—Image of God."
Aristotle
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who developed the Helio-centric model.

Developed by observations of stars that took their own path (planets).
The sun was the center of the universe is part of what model
Helio-centric
Ptolemy
Humans are are part of nature and not above it

Geo centric
main contribution was earth was the center of the universe. Believed everything in the Heavens revolved around the earth.
geo-centric
Secularism
belief that religion should be separate from certain institutions or practices.
Binomial Nonmenclature
formal system of naming species
Linnaeus
not an evolutionist-- wanted to understand God's work.

Believe that you must compartmentalize b/c the world is too big individual thinking.
Wrote “The Natural System”.
linnaeus

book on dividing all livin things into a ranking order (heiarchially)
Feathers- birds

Fins - fish
Had a consistent system for naming. (ex. Named mammals, using similarities)
linnaeus
Buffon
reconized relationship between enviornment and nature
(Survival of the fittest)
First to write common organisms develop from a common ancestor.
Buffon
Erasmus Darwin
Charles’ grandfather. Rejected the idea that species didn’t change

Saw gradual changed

Accrued Advantages
Darwin
Natural selection

He was a clergy man and naturalist on a ship to explore new land. Ended up in the Galapagos Islands and noticed all the different types of finches. Those with favorable variations reproduce variation=imperfect (variation was the key to evolution
Natural Selection
Those with favorable variations reproduce variation=imperfect (variation was the key to evolution)


responsible for changes in allele frequencies
Lamarck
French consider him the father of evolutionary thinking.
He was a zoological philosophy.
Uniform geology
Uniform geology process
—process that works today are the same ones that worked in the past.
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
(when the environment changes, so does the animal)
By Lamark
Malthus
Argued that ppl grow in numbers geometrically. Population doubled every generation and goes down before it goes back up.
Lyell
Wrote book “Principles of Geology” and said that the geological process observed in the present went on in the past (uniformitarianism).
Wallace
Same idea as Darwin but with beetles. “Origin of Species” to be published upon his death. Together they presented new idea
1859
Darwin published wallace's book
Gradualism
the traditional view of evolution has emphasized that change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages.
Prokaryotic Cell
(no nuclei) a classic example is blue-green algae.

single celled
Eukaryotic Cell
(have a nucleus) allows first time for multi-cellular organisms. Each human has about 1 trillion eukaryote cells.
Nucleus
most important fluid filled sack with nuclear membrane
Mitochondria
Power/energy supply for the cell and important because of its structure. Comprised of a DNA that forms the structure of the mitochondria.
Cytoplasm
what everything in a cell floats in
ribosome
where amino acid form proteins
Gametes
Sex cell
Somatic Cells
cells that make up the basic structure of the human body. All cells are somatic cells except sex cells.

cellular components of tissue
Chromosomes
contain all hereditary information and regulate life (esp. proteins that are formed). 1 chromosome=1 DNA molecule because chromosomes and DNA are the same thing. 23 total pairs (46)
Chromatin
46 strains of DNA together
(23 pairs)
wound around each other
when seperated- winds around itself
centromeres
Two strands of DNA because the first has been replicated.
Karyotype
when you get a cell in process of dividing and the chromosomes line up on either side of the cell.

provides us with genetic info
Chromatides
of DNA and each contain same information

a pair are wrapped in centromese
makes copies of itself
Mitosis
How regular cells divide

Cell division of normal eukaryote cells
-Interphase
-prophase
-metaphase
-anaphase
-telophase
Interphase
most of life, just hanging out --- chromatin in nucleus
Prophase
When a cell begins to divide and nuclear membrane begins to break down
Metaphase
all chromosomes line up along equator of the cell
anaphase
individual chromatides seperate out. Being pulled by spindle fibers towards the center
telophase
cell begins to pinch into two cells and chromatins are at 2 sides. At the end there are 2 daughter cells
(copy themselves--- DNA replication)
Meiosis
process for reproductive cells (gametes)
Guys need to produce as man sperm as possible b/c each doesn’t have much of a chance. Same as elements of mitosis.
how sex cells divide
Meiosis
Spermatogenesis
forming sperm
2 cells
Recombination
(also sometimes called “crossing-over” is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. DNA

Combo of traits
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) the double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code. DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
Nucleotides
the smaller molecules that DNA is composed of (deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base).
Hydrogen bond
holds nucliotide bases together
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
each nucleotide is made of one of these four chemical bases. A & T and G & C pair together (base pairing rule)
DNA Replication
when a cell divides, the DNA must make copies of itself so that each new cell receives a full complement of the genetic code.
amino acids
chains of smaller molecules that proteins are made up of. In all there are 20 amino acids, 8 of which must be obtained from the foods we eat and the other 12 we produce in cells.
Peptide Bonds
chemical bonds formed by two molecules that results in a amide
polypeptide chains
sequence of amino acids that act (alone or in combo w/ others) as a functional protein
bonded by peptide bond
Proteins
three-dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules.
Protein Synthesis
the assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules. Process is directed by DNA.

manufacture of protein
Ribosome
Structures composed of a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA and protein. Ribosomes are found in the cell’s cytoplasm and are essential to the manufacture of proteins.
RNA
ribonucleic acid is a single-stranded molecule, similar in structure to DNA. Three forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis. They are messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Uracil
substitutes for thymine
in RNA and attaches to adenine
Transctiption
process of copying DNA to RNA by an enzyme called RNA polymerase (RNAP)
Translation
occurs in the cytoplasm and mRNA into a chain of amino acids that form proteins.
Gene
section of DNA responsible for the ultimate synthesis of a specific gene product, usually a polypeptide chain of amino acids
Locus
particular location on a homologous chromosomes (loci=plural)
Allele
different forms of DNA code @ a given location of locus. Different alleles often end up different traits.
Base Sequence
AT & CG
Point mutation
can cause things like sickle Cell

one individual nucleotide replaces another
Pangenesis Theory
Ancient Greeks argued women had particles inside them
Homunculus Theory
dominate theory up to modern genetics. Argued men carried “seed” and planted it into the womb. Basically believed it was all man.
Mendel
His job was to keep the garden up and he began experimenting with pea plants. He looked at 7 different traits: shape, color, stems, flowers, etc.

described inheritance
Law of Segregation
act of separation and then bringing them back together. All allele pairs randomly segregate during gamete formation (meiosis). Paired condition restored with fusion (fertilization).
Dominate
trait that masks the other traits. (B)—heterozygote
Recessive
masked by the dominate (b)—homozygote
Law of Independent Assortment
each allele pair segregates independently of all others.
Phenotype
characteristics of an individual visually observed or discernable by other means.
Punnett Square
a short-hand tool used to calculate offspring genotypes from specific parental genotypes
Sickle Cell Anemia
inherit it from both parents—hemoglobin disorder.
Hybrids
Offspring of individuals that differ with regard to certain traits or certain aspects of genetic makeup; heterozygote
Dihybrid Cross
cross between two identical heterozygous—often used to test for dominate and recessive genes in two different characteristics
ABO Blood Group
all of the ABO blood types are determined by two genetically determined proteins called antigens
Codominance
the expression of two alleles in heterozygotes. In this situation, neither allele is dominant or recessive so they both influence the phenotype.
Non independed Assortment
linked genes
Mendelian traits
: Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus. Examples: sickle-call anemia, ABO blood type
Autosomal traits
if the allele is on chromosomes 1-22 then the trait is dominant (will show it)
not sex cells
Sex-link traits
hemophilia is an example
Polygenic inheritance
continuous” traits)—phenotypic traits from two or more genes and their interaction with the environment.
Growth
increase in body mass of number of cells
Hyperplasia
increase in # of cells
hypertrophy
increase in cell size
Development
Differentiation and maturation (change in chromosome structure) of cells into different types of tissue
Human bone growth
endrochondrial ossification—Long bone growth diaphysis and epiphysis (spongey) eventually join together for ossification
stature
provides excellent view of health and nutrition in population. Rapid growth in 1st and 2nd trimesters and increasing until 4 years old. Growing spurts in early infancy and puberty.
brain growth
25% at birth, 50% at six months, 75% at 2.5 years old, 90% at 5, and 95% at 10
Nutrition
what we get out of food
Proteins
provide amino acids—8 essential ones we have to get from food
essential amino acids
produce all but 8 that we need and those 8 we have to get from the food we eat—protein is the best source; however, beans or tofu contain them as well
Carbohydrates
main energy source for the body (starches, polysaccharides) broken down into simple sugars
Lipids
not as good as carbs but also energy that gets broken down into glucose (fats, oils, butter)
Vitamins
serve as enzymatic to speed up chemical reactions—2 categories: Water soluble (B,C) excreted in urine and fat soluble (ADEK) and all storable
Mineral/Trace Elements
inorganic nutrients used by the body—calcium (bone and teeth), iron (oxygen transportation), and iodine (thyroid function) are most important
Diets before Agriculture
not enough time for human bodies to have adjusted—no longer made to eat the way we do now.
Undernutrition
not getting enough food (calories)
Malnutrition
not getting the right kind of food—protein deficiency is a big problem in 3rd world countries.
Factors influencing growth & development
genetics, hormones, environmental
Human life cycle
conception/pregnancy, gestation, birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, postreproductive period, death
microevolution
small changes occurring within species such as a change in allele frequencies.
macroevolution
changes produced only after many generations, such as the appearance of new species
Gene Flow
exchange of genes between populations

migration of alleles in or out of a pop
war or mating with another culture
Genetic Drift
evolutionary changes—changes in allele; frequencies produced by random factors—genetic drift is a result of small population size.
Founder Effect
a type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remaining of, the larger population.
Enviornmental Changes
affect DNA
Peppered Moths
the peppered moth’s habitat that they blended into was subjected to a forest fire. Over the years the moths have changed colors to blend in with the singed wood (a salt and pepper gray)
Malaria
caused by a parasite and carried by female mosquitoes in their gut, when the mosquito bites the human the spores travel to the liver and begin paralyzing red blood cells—most prominent in 3rd world countries (Africa, India, etc.)
Balanced Polymorphism
the maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote.
Polygenic Traits
traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci. (ex. Skin color, hair texture, eye color)
Species
a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species (can’t mate and produce fertile offspring)
Reproductive Isolation
pertaining to groups of organisms that mainly because of genetic difference are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other groups.
Polytypic Species
species composed of populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits.
Population
with in a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found.
genetics
study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Foundation for evolutionary change.
Hardy Weinbery Equilibrium
P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

mathematical relationship expressing the predicted distribution of alleles in populations; central theorem of population genetics.
Genotype Frequency
genetic make up of an individual
Allelic Frequency
in a population the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele.
phenotype
observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism, detectable expressions of genotypes, frequently influenced by environmental factors.
Polymorphisms
Loci with more than one allele—can be expressed in the phenotype as the result of gene action (as in ABO) or can exist solely at the DNA level.
Antigens
large molecules found the surface of cells
Immune Response
body's reaction to a foreign antigen
Cline
gradual change in the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from one geographical region to another
Clinical Distribution of traits
most traits that show a clinical distribution are Mendelian.
Accrued Advantages
change from monkeys
Darwin's Theory
1. world changes over time
2. common decent
3. multipication of species -split
4. gradualism
5. survival of the fittest
2.7 billion yrs ago Prokaryotic cell invaded another prokaryotic cell creating a ____

(invading cell becomes neucli)
Eukaryote cell
brings in amino acids that are brought together to form proteins (site of protein formation)
Ribosome
2 types of Eukaryote
Somatic cells

Sex Cells
Sex Cells
reproductive cells or gametes

Egg and sperm serve for reproduction to form zygote (becomes individual)
oversees production of proteins and regulates body
Chromosomes
1 Chromosomes =s
1 DNA molecule
chromosoes are DNA

tells us how to function
Interphase
goes about doing what cell normally does
Phrophase
when cell begins to divide
-membrane breaksdown & DNA forms into seperate
Metaphase
line up next to each other along equator of the cell
Anaphase
centramids dissolve and begin to seperate and pull apart
Telophase
our cell seperates into 2
each has one chromitid from chromosomes
-cell pinches into 2 cells & membrane forms around neucleus
forms 2 daughter cells
________ is the process of 2 parent cells ending with 2 daughter cells. Daughters have 46 each
Mitosis
Phases of Meiosis
Meiosis I- reduction phase
Meiosis II- Division phase
Division of chromosomes into pairs
Meiosis
Reduction
Meiosis I
-reduce chromosomes to 23 pairs
Division
Meiosis II
-dividing cells
oogenesis
egg formation
Polar Body
genetic energy and falls off.
Male contribute no cytoplasm and all mitochondria from mom.
Crossing Over
when part of a chromosome switches with another one
Base pair ruling
only adenine and thymine can connect

and only guanin and cytosine can connect
_____ becomes a chromosome with 2 strands (new strand forms and old strand unzips & new one latches onto each side of the strand)
DNA Replication
DNA Replication occurs in...
interphase

only happens when cells split
_________ molecules that regulate the body,determine structure, digestion and repair it
Protein
chains of amino acids are
proteins
2 parts of protein sythesis
Transcription & Translation
RNA
1. Single stranded
2. sugar is different then sugar in DNA
3. Uracil is the hydrodunas base (replaces Thymine)
4. can pass through the nuclear membrane
Transcription
DNA splits apart
forms RNA
mRNA goes to the ribosome
Translation
mRNA is a ribosome
tRNA has 3 bases
each base carries an amino acid on the other side
tRNA lines up with mRNA @ Ribosome
drops off amino acids and gets another one
Earth is bombarded by cosmic radiation
(passing through our bodies and pushing cells out)
Point mutation
genetic bottleneck
population goes through this

ex: catasrophy happens and we loose some characteristics
__________ is maintained if no evolution occurs
equilibrium
population
total # of people in area or group of individuals that make and share a gene pool
Human variation
studied through population genetics
(1) isolate pop
(2) check to see if evolution is occuring