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122 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Mollusca
-Mostly Aquatic: Snails, slugs,clams, oysters,octopi.
-Bilateral Symmetry w/ true coelem
-Unsegmented
-Parts: Mantle, muscular foot, visceral mass.
Muscular Foot
-Used for locomotion and food capture
-Covered with soft epithelium
-May secrete mucus
Visceral Mass
-Contains most of internal organs of a Mollusk
Digestive System of Mollusks
-More complicated than phylum before
-Complete(separate mouth & anus)
-Mouth, Stomach, and intestine
-Radula: Rasping tongue w/ chitinous teeth.
Excretory System of Mollusks
-Simplest animal w/ this
-Nephridia: Tubes that gather wastes from coelem
-Walls of Nephridia reabsorb needed compounds
-Waste discharged into mantle cavity and pumped out by gills
Circulatory System of Mollusks
-Some closed, some open
-3 chambered heart
-Some fast cephalopods have auxillary hearts to speed blood mov't
Reproductive Systema and Life Cyle of Mollusks
-Most have separate sexes, but many snails are hermaphroditic
-Trochophore: ciliated free-swimming larva
-Veliger: Second Stage in development of most snails and bivalves-> Has beginning of mantle and foot
Mantle of Mollusks
-Folds from dorsal body wall
-Mantle Cavity: between mantle and visceral mass, may act as lung or enclose gills-> filamentous projections of mantle, rich in blood vessels, large surface area for gas exchange
*Siphons: move in and out of mantle cavity, may be used to bring in food or for jet propulsion
Shell of Mollusks
-Secreted by mantle
-Protection
-One or 2 valves(shells)
-Outer Layer: Protein, protects from eroding
-Middle Layer: Crystals of Calcium Carobonate
-Inner Layer: Pearly, increases in thickness throughout life
*Pearls form between inner layer and mantle in bivalves.
Class Polyplacophora
-Chitons
-Marine
-Body beneath is unsegmented
-Use foot for locomotion and for attachment
Class Gastropoda
-Snails and slugs
-"stomach foot"
-Most have single shells
-Operculum: horny plate that forms a "door" for when the snail withdraws into its shell
-Coiling Shell due to one side of larva growing faster than the other side
-Visible head, foot and visceral mass
-Mantle cavity as lung
-Diversity in feeding, most herbaceous
Class Bivalvia
-Clams, oysters, scallops etc.
-2 shells hinged together by adductor muscles
-Siphons for filter feeding
-No distinct head
-Stong muscular foot
-Sessile or move by clapping shells together
Class Cephalopoda
-Octopi, squid, cuttlefish
-1 or 0 shells: Octopi= No shell, Squid and Cuttlefish= Internal shell remnant for support, Nautilus= chambered shell
-Highly developed nervous system (giant axons)
-Elaborate eyes
-Most intelligent invertebrates
-Foot= grasping tentacles with suckers
-Jet propuslision from siphons
-Closed circulatory system(only mollusk with this)
-Beak at radula for biting
-Squid and Octopi: Ink for trapping or escaping
*Cuttle-fish, squid and octopi change colors using CHROMATOPHORES (pigment pouches
Phylum Annelida
-Segmented worms
-Polcheates, earthworms, and leeches
-Segments separated by *Septa*
-fluid in coelem acts as hydrostatic skeleton(muscles push against fluid)
-Ventral nerve cord and circulatory blood vessels connect segments
*Setae* Bristles of chitin
-Closed circulatory system
-Gas exchange through skin
-Excretory system includes *Nephridia-> 2 per segment, waste out of coelem by excretory tubes
Class Polychaeta
-Unusual and colorful forms
-Plumed worms, peacock worms, fan worms
-Filter feeders
-More cephalized than most Annelida
*Parapodia: fleshy paddle-like flaps used for moving and gas exchange
-Sexes separate: yet lack permanant gonads-> make gametes from cell lining of coelem
-External fertilization
-Trocophore larva: ciliated
Class Oligochaeta
-Earthworms
-Eat through soil
-Hermaphroditic
-join in opposite directions at *clitellum* secretes mucus to hold 2 worms together
-share sperm and each lays eggs in mucus cocoon which protects fertilized eggs
Class Hirudinea
-Leeches
-mostly freshwater
-hermaphroditic with clitellum
-reduced segmentation and coelom
-Flattened
-No setae
-Suckers
-Many suck blood
-Chitinous jaw used to rasp through skin, produce anticoagulant to keep blood flowing.
Phylum Arthropoda
-Spiders, insects, lobsters
-Jointed appendages
-Exoskeleton of chitin
-strong but brittle
-Ecdysis: Molting
-Segmented: fused into TAGMATA(sections)*important in arth.evolution
-Distinct head with brain
-Cephalothorax: fused head and thorax
-Abdomen
-No cilia
-limited coelom
-open circulatory system
*heart= longitudinal dorsal vessel w/ 2 openings at brain end and into coelom
Respiratory System in Arthropods
-System of branched, cuticle-lined air ducts *Tracheae*
-small tracheoles in direc contact with cells
-air gets in through holes in exoskeleton *spiracles*
-Some have Book Lungs or Book Gills (series of sheets in a chamber for gas exchange)
Excretory System in Arthropods
-Varies
-Unique-> Malpighian tubules
~Slender projection of digestive tracts
~Fluid passes through them
~wastes are emptied into hindgut
~water and salt reabsorbed
Nervous System in Arthropods
-Two chains of ganglia along ventral surface
-Front= 2 fused ganglia pairs
-Ventral control most functions
-Compound eyes: composed of several ommatidia
-Simple eyes (ocelli)also present
Subphylum Chelicerata
-Spiders horseshoe crabs, spiders
-Lack jaws
-First pair of appendages are *Chelicerate(fangs)*
-2nd pair are pinchers or feelers *Pedipalps*
-Rest of appendages are legs (8 legs)
Class Arachnida
-Scorpions, spiders, mites, and ticks
-Chelicerae are fangs w/ poison gland
-8 walking legs
-Carnivorous (mites are herb)
-Ingest liquified food
Order Opiliones
-Harvestman or Daddy long legs
-Oval compact body
-Long, slender legs
-Predators of insects and arachnids
-Ovipositor for laying eggs
Order Scorpiones
-Scorpions
-Pedipalps are pinchers
-Stinger in last segment of abdomen
-Most ancient groups
-Young borne alive
Order Araneae
-Spiders
-2 body segments: Prosoma(cephalothorax) and opisthoma(abdomen)
-Book lungs
-Produce silk from protein forced out of spinnerets
-Control insect population
-hunt or use webs
-pedipalps used to deposit and transfer sperm
-Poison glands are conncected to fangs-> used to paralyze prey
Order Acari
-mites and ticks
-Chelicerae fused into *capitulum* used for piercing
-Cephalothorax and abdomen fused
-pests of crops and plants
*Ticks: Blood feeding ectoparasites that transmit disease
Class Merostomata
-Horseshoe crabs
-"living fossils"
-Pedipalps appear like legs
- 5 pairs of Book Gills
-Shell called *Carapace*
-Long tail called *Telson*
Subphylum Crustacea
-Shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, crabs, barnacles
-Sensory antennae as 1st Appendages (2 pairs)
-Biramous Appendages
-"two-branched"
-paired jaws
*Nauplius* similar larva shared by all
*Decapods*- Shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, crabs
-10 walking legs
-CACO3 exoskeleton
-Swimmerets on abdomen
-Uropods or telson at the end of abdomen
Subphylum Hexapoda
-Milipedes, centipedes, and insects
-Uniramous appendages("single branched")
-paired jaws(mandibles)
-Tracheal respiratory sysetem
-Malphighan tubules for excretion
Class Chilopoda
-Centipedes
-Head and multisegmented trunk
-fangs on head (poison claws on 1st segment)
-One pair of legs per body segment
Class Diplopoda
-Millipedes
-Inconspicuous head and multisegmented trunk
-2 pairs of legs per body segment
*Tagma* Fusion of two ancestral segments
-Herbivores
-Secrete fumes to ward off attackers
Class Insecta(Hexapoda)
-body segments: head,thorax,abdomen
-3 pairs of legs on thorax only
-one pair of antenna
-Specialized mouth parts
-wings (2nd pair= reduced halter)
*Sensory hairs* cover body
-Fat body= food storage(& like liver)
-Thin membrane *Tympanum* used for hearing
-Communicate using pheremones
Insect Life Cycle
*Instar* stage between moltings.
-Molting controlled by ecdysone(motling hormone)
*Ametabolous= two stages (egg & adult) Babies like small adults ex)silverfish
*Hemimetabolous* 3 stages (egg,nymph,adult) Nymphs become more like adult with every molt *differ in wing size* ex) dragonflies, grasshoppers
*Holometabolous* 4 stages (egg, larva, pupa, adult) Tremendous change from wormlike *larva->no eyes, no legs, FEEDERS.
*Pupa-> transformational stage
*Adult-> Breeder
-90% of insects ex) beetles,butterflies,beetles,ants, flies
*Juvenile hormone* controls Metamorphisis
Order Coleoptera
-Beetles
-Diverse
-Hard forewings
-Homometabolous
Order Diptera
-Flies
-Hind wings
-reduced halters used for steering and stability
-Homometabolous
Order Hymenoptera
-Butterflies and moths
-Wings have scales
-Homometabolous
-Proboscis
Order Hemiptera
-True bugs
-Sucking insects
-Hemimetabolous
Order Orthopter
-Grasshoppers, crickets, roaches
-great leaping ability
-hemimetabolous
Order Odonata
-dragonflies and damselflies
-2 pairs of wings (ancient wing form-> cannot be folded)
-hemimetabolous
Order Isoptera
-termites
-SOCIAL
-Hemimetabolous
Protosomes
-Blastophore becomes mouth
-Spiral Cleavage
-Cell fate commitment at appearance
-Coelom forms by seperation within mesoderm
-All bilateria covered so far, Chaetognatha
Deuterosomes
-Blastophore becomes anus
-Radial Clevage
-later cell commitment(possibility of twins, cloning etc.)
-Coelom(and mesoderm) formed by evagination of ARCHENTERON(primitive gut)
-Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata
-
Phylum Echinodermata
-Urchins, sea stars, sea cucumbers
-"Spiny skin"-> Endoskeleton
~Calcium rich plates under skin
~pores for water vascular system->*madreporite(takes in water) *tube feet(take advantage of water intake)
-Pentaradially Symmetrical: derived trait, *Larva are bilaterially symmetrical
-Coelom: large, used for circulation and respiration
-Asexual-> many can regenerate
-Sexual-> free swimming larvae
Water Vascular System
-Used for moving & feeding
~Enters through *Madreporite*
~Moves through Stone canal-> Ring Canal
~Radial Canals extend from ring canals into 5 body parts and branch out into *tube feet*
-Contraction of *Ampulla (muscular sac) at the base of the tube foot forces fluid into tube, extending it
Lophotrochozoans
-Intermediate between P & D in developmental characteristics
~RNA groups them with P
Phyla-> *Phoronida= U shaped gut in a chitinous tube *Ectoprocta= bryozoans, moss. Secrete and live in chitinous chamber(zoecium), communicate through pores in zoecia.
*Brachiopoda= "clams" have calcified pair of shells.
Class Crinoidea
-Sea lilies and feather stars
-Filter feeders
-Primitive, SESSILE
*Sea lilies= calcerous stalk, living "fossils", dominant in Paleozoic Era.
*Feather Stars= no stalk
Class Asteroidea
-Sea Stars or Starfish
-Grooves along each arm bordered by tube feet
-Feed on bivalves
Class Ophiuroidea
-Brittle Stars
-More flexible than starfish
-"Snake like arms"
-Tube feet used to capture prey
Class Echinoidea
-Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars
-No arms
-Move via spines
-Vegetarians
Class Holothruoidea
-Sea Cucumbers
-Long tube with leathery skin
-Mouth surrounded by modified tube feet called tentacles
-extrude foul smelling stomach when scared
Class Concentricycloidea
-Sea dasies
-Recently discovered
-No arms
-Tube feet on the edge of disc
Phylum Chaetognatha
-Arrow worms
-Protosome
-Arrow shaped with septa b/t head, trunk, and tail
Phylum Hemichordata
-Acorn Worms
-"half chordates"
-Transitional group to phylum Chordata
-Ciliated Larvae
*Share with Chordates=>
-Dorsal nerve cord
-Ventral Nerve cord
-Part of dorsal nerve cord is hollow
-Throat with pharyngeal gill slits
Phylum Chordata
*Deuterosomes with notochord
*Jointed appendages
*Segmentation
4 Key Features of Chordates
1.*Dorsal, hollow nerve cord(becomes brain/spinal cord)
2.*Notochord- flexible, fibrous rod (replaced by vertebrae)
3.*Pharyngeal Gill Slits- openings in throat
4.*Postanal Tail-
*Nonvertebrate Chordate*
Subphylum Urochordata
-Sea Squirts, tunicates
-Sessile
-Filter Feeders
-Secrete and live in cellulose sac *Tunic* as adults
-Only have Ph.Gill slits as adults
-Tadpole like larvae
-Siphons
-No brain
*Nonvertebrate Chordate*
Subphylum Cephalochordata
-Lancelets
-Fishlike
-Bury themselves in mud
-All 4 key Char. present as adults
-Muscles broken up into band called *Myomeres*
-No brain
*Resembles Pikaia-> oldest living fossil representing a chordate
Subphylum Vertebrata
-Head w/ brain and skull (craniates)
-notochord replaced by Vertebral column
-Neutral Crest Ectoderm: stem cells that form near neutral tube and migrate during development
-Highly developed internal organs
-Endoskeleton made of cartilage and bone
*Collagen protein fibers
*Bone= Calcium Phosphate
-Cannot make enough Amino Acids
Fishes
-Paraphyletic
-Aquatic vertebrates that lack 5 fingered limbs
-The first vertebrates
*Gills: water comes in through mouth and goes out through slits covered with small blood vessels(blood flow goes opposite of water for max. gas exchange)
*Single Loop Circulation: Heart->gills->rest of body->heart
History of Fishes
*first fishes- Ostracoderms(paraphyletic)
-no jaws: filter feeders
-internal cartilage skeleton
-Abundant in Ordovican and Silurian Periods
-Jaws evovled from gill arches
*First jawed fish: Acanthodii
-spiny fishes
-common in the Devonian period
*Class Placodermi: armored fish
-Sharks and bony fished evolved in the Devonian and became dominant
*Devonian Period*- Age of Fishes!
Superclass Agnatha
-Jawless fishes
Class Myxini
-hagfishes
-cannot regulate body salts
-No vertebra
*Craniate, not really vertebrate
Class Cephalaspidomorphi
-Lampreys
-Derived ffrom Ostracoderms that lost plates
-Vertebrae are shards of cartilage
-Larva(Ammocoete) are filter feeders
-Trasform into adult with oral disk
-Do not feed as adults (transform, breed and die)

-
Class Chondrichthyes
-Shakes, skates and rays
-Calcified cartilage
-Improved Jaw
-Teeth developed from rough scales, continually replaced
-Built better for swimming(streamlined body, better fins)
-Sharks became dominant predetors after Devonian
-Sharks are very advanced
-Internal fertilization
-Most have live birth
Class Osteichthyes
-Bony fishes
*Swim bladder
-fill with air to regulate body density and thus placement in the water
*Lateral Line System
-Pores along body used to sense vibration
*Operculum
-Gill cover
-allows diversity in food capture
-better breathing
-can breath without swimming
Actinopterygii
-Ray finned fishes
-most fishes
-no fin bones or muscle outside of the body
Sarcopterygii
-lobe finned fishes
-lungfishes (Sister group to tetrapods)
-bone and muscle exit body wall into fins
-closest relatives to *Tetrapods*
-Gave rise to tetrapods(4 limbed vertebrates with 5 figered limbs)
Requirements for successful land invasion
-Legs
-Lungs
-More efficient heart
-Prevent eggs from drying out
-prevent body from drying out
Class Amphibia
-Earliest: *Ichyostega*
-fish with legs
-digits
-tail fin with fibrous rays
-Carboniferous Period: Age of Amphibians
*Modern Amph: rely on cutaneous respiration more than lungs
-require water for early life or reproduction
-3 Chambered Heart
Order Anura
-Frogs and toads
-very devrived
-lost tail
-modified vertebrae for jumping
Order Urodela(Caudata)
-Salamanders
-Elongated body with tail
-moist
-smooth skin
Order Apoda(Gymnophiona)
-Caecilians
-Lost limbs
-Look like worms
-Burrow
Class Reptilia
-Reptiles
-Paraphyletic
-Mesozoic Era: Age of Reptiles
-Totally adapted to land
*Amniotic egg(shell to keep from drying)
*Dry skin covered in keratin(scales)
*Thoracic or Pulmonary Breathing
*Ectothermic(cold blooded)
*Improved heart: 4 chambered
to keep blood from mixing
Order Chelonia
-turtles
-most primitive
-little change
-no holes in skull for passage of jaw muscles: *anapsid skull
Synapsids
-Therapsids, pelycosaurs
-gave rise to mammals
-Synapsid skull
*One temporal opening on each side(temple)
-jaw muscles anchored in temple
-Pelycosaurs were first dominant reptiles-> therapsids took over
Therapsids
-Gave rise to mammals
-Warm blooded
-derived jaw: same as mammals
*Cusorial gait: legs tucked under the body like pillars
(allows for greater size)
*Heterodont condition: teeth evolved for different purposes
Diapsids
-Two temporal openings on each side
-Rest of reptiles and birds
Order Squamata
-Lizards, snakes, amphibaenians
-Most dominant group today
-Skull highly moveable
Order Rhynchocephalia
-Tuataras
-Primitive non motile skull
-Native to New Zealand
-Appeared before dinosaurs
Thecodonts
-Diapsid protodinosaurs
-Ectothermic
Order Crocodylia
-Crocodiles, alligators, gavials, caimans
-derived from thecodonts
-True 4 Chambered heart
-little change
Dinosaurs
-derived from thecodonts
-some may have been endothermic
*Cursorial Gait
*dominant in Jurassic and Cretaceous
-Birds evolved from Dinosaur lineage
Class Aves
-Monophyletic
-Feathers(derived scales) made of keratin
-Flight skeleton
*hollow bones
*backbone fused
*fused collarbone
*Keeled sternum(increase area for muscle attachment)
-4 chambered heart w/ 2 loop system(pulmonary veins)
-Endothermic
-Super efficient respiration: air sacs that assure 02 is always going over the lungs
-Lay amniotic eggs
*Derived from Archeopteryx*
*Cenozoic Era: Age of the Birds*
-Most Order Passeriformes: Songbirds
Class Mammalia
-Hair: dead skin cells filled with keratin
-insulation, sensory, coloration, protection
-Mammary glands
-Heterodont teeth
-Most have placenta
-Decended from therapsids
*Cenozoic Era: Age of the Mammals
Order Monotremata
-Monotremes
-Duck billed platypus
-Lay eggs
-Most primitive skeleton
Order Marsupialia
-Marsupials
-Give birth to young with continue development in pouch
ex) opossum, kangaroos
Eutherins
-Placentals
-94% of mammals
-all have placenta
Order Proboscidea
-Long muscular trunk
-Thick loose skin
-tusks
*Elephants
Order Sirenia
-Aquatic
-Fin like forelimbs
-herbivores
*Manatee
Order Xenarthra
-Reduced teeth
-Herbavores or Carnivores
ex) sloths, anteaters, armadillos
Order Lagomorpha
-Chisel-like incisors
-adapted for running and jumping
ex)rabbits, hares, picas
Order Carnivora
-Sharp pointed canine teeth
-Carnivores
ex)dogs, wolves, bears, cats, weasels, otters, seals, walruses
Order Cetartiodactyla Atriodactyls
-Hooves with even number of toes
-Herbivores
ex)sheep, pigs, cattle, deer, giraffes
Order Cetaceans
-Aquatic
-Stream lined bodies
-Paddle like forelimbs
-Blubber
-Carnivorous
ex)whales, dolphins, porpoises
Order Tubulidentata
-Teeth of many thin tubes
-eats ants and termites
ex) ardvark
Order Hyracoidea
-Short legs
-Stumpy tail
-herbivores
-Multi chambered stomach
ex) Hyraxes
Oder Rodentia
-Chisel like incisors worn down by knawing
-Herbivores
ex) squirrels, beavers, rates, porcupines, mice
Order Primates
-Opposable thumbs
-Forward facing eyes
-well developed cerebral cortex
-omnivorous
ex)Lemurs, monkeys, apes, humans
Order Perissodactyla
-Hooves with odd number of toes
-Herbivores
Ex)horses, zebras, tapirs, rhino
Oder Chiroptera
-Adapted for flight
-carnivorous or herbivorous
ex) bat
Order Eulipotphla
-Diet of insects and other invertebrates
ex)moles, shrews
Primary tissues in Vertebrates
-Epithelial
-Connective
-Muscle
-Nerve
Epithelial Tissue
-Derived from all 3 germ layers(ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
-Both internal and external
-Protects all body surfaces from...
-water loss
-pathogens
-Makes needed exchanges with the environment
Glands
- Secretion
*Exocrine glands- have ducts
*Endocrine glands- ductless, secreted hormones
Unifying characteristics of Epithelial tissue
-Tightly bound with tight junctions
-Thin with no blood vessels
-Tissue regeneration
Classes and shapes of Epithelial tissue
*Simple: one cell layer thick
*Stratified: several cell layers thick
*Squamous: irregular flattened shape with tapered edges
*Cuboidal: about the same heigth, width, and depth
*Columnar: taller than they are wide
Connective tissue
-Derived from mesoderm
-Cell spaced widely apart
-Imbedded in extracellular major
-Used for support, connections, and transport
Loose Connective tissue
-Cells scattered in protein matrix
-Under skin and b/t organs
-Support, food storage, insulation
-Gel matrix
*Collagen: strengthens
*Elastin: gives elasticity
*Reticulin: supporting meshwork
*Fibroblasts- secrete matrix proteins
*Mast Cells- make histamin (dialator) and heparin (anticoagulant)
*Macrophages- defend against invading organisms
*adipose cells: triglyceride storage for energy
Dense Connective Tissue
-Tightly packed collagen
-Provides flexible, strong connections
-Made of Fibroblasts
Dense Regular Connective tissue
-Parallel collagen fibers
*ligaments: bone/bone
*tendons: muscle/bone
Dense Irregular connective tissue
-Collagen fibers with various orientations
-Covers organs, muscles, nerves,and bones
Cartilage
-special glycoprotein in matrix(Chondritin sulfate)
-Long parallel collagen rays
-Firm, strong, flexible
-Does not stretch
-Tougher than other connective tissue proper types
-Shock absorber
-Reduces friction
*Chondrocyte cells with *Lacunae- spaces
Bone
-Replace cartilage models
*Osteocytes- live within lacunae
*Canaliculi- tiny bone canals
-Protection of organs
-Support for muscle attachment and movement
Blood
-Extracellular matrix is the plasma
*Plasma Proteins: *Fibrinogen from liver used for blood clotting *Albumin: from liver used in fluid balance *Antibodies:from lymphocytes used in immune response
Blood Cell Types
*Erythrocytes (RBC)- most common, contain hemoglobin which carries oxygen
*Leukocytes (WBC)- several types, primary role in immune system
*Thrombocytes- Platelets, used in blood clotting
Muscles
-Develop from mesoderm
-Use actin and mysosin filaments for contraction
Smooth Muscle
-First to evolve
-found in blood vessel walls, wall of gut, and iris of eye
-Involuntary
-Sheets of long spindle like cells with one nucleus
Skeletal Muscle
-Attached by tendons to bones
-Voluntary
-Large scale body movements
-Multinucleated *Muscle Fibers: run parallel, each controlled by a nerve fiber
*Myofibrils: arrays of actin and myosin for contration
-Striated
Cardiac Muscle
-Striated
-One nucleus
-Involuntary
*Intercalated Discs are gap junctions linking ajacent cells
*Myocardium: cardiac muscles as a single unit
Nerve Tissues
-Derived from ectoderm
-Neurons and Neuroglia
-Highly specialized
-Recieve, produce, and convey electrical signals
Neuron Cell Parts
*Cell body- contains nucleus (control center)
*Dendrites- Recieve incoming signals and conduct them to cell body
*Axon- conducts impulses away from the cell body,covered in myelin sheath to speed up impulse