• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/163

Click to flip

163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is rain shadow
The desert area on the leeward side of the mountain
The amount of solar energy receieved at any place on the Earth is influenced by
Both latitude and season
In order to maintain homeostasis, organisms live within a certain range of conditions called
Environmental tolerance
The following are fundamental resource required by all living organisms
Nutrients, Liquid Water, appropriate Temperatures
Which biome is dominated by evergreen coniferous trees and stretches horizontally across all of North American and Eurasia
Taiga
The Last biome encounter at high latitudes is the arctic __, where persisten permafrost impedes growth
Tundra
The following are typical features of the rainforest
Poor soil, primates, high rainfall, epiphytes, butresses on tress.
Chemosyntehsis is the energy harvesting process in _____ communities.
hydrothermal vent
The development of terrestrial biomes is determined primarily by the interaction of
Temperature and Rainfall
Introduced Species can negatively impact natural communities because they may be new______ that the resident species have not evolved with.
Predators, parasites, Competitors
The erlationship between agiosperms and their pollinators is a type of
Mutualism
An epiphytic plant and the tree it lives on is an example of
commensalism
Resource partitioning reduces the effects of
interspecific competition
All aspects of an organsm way of life is called its
Ecological niche
If A species A out-comeptes species B and drives it to extinction____ has occured
competitive exclusion
What is the function of aposematic coloration
it warns the predator of toxicity
Co-evolution between the rough skinned newt and the western garter snake has resulted in
the newt becoming toxic enough to kill human
Plant defense mechanisms might include
production of chemcials
thorns,spines, or hairs
Which of the following is an exmaple of symbiosis
Heartworms living in a dog, algae live in association with coral polyps, nitrogen fixing bacteria live in association with plant roots, and lichens
The energy that producers store and make avaiable to consumers over a given period of time is
net primary productivity
Detritus includes
leaves that fall from trees, dead bodies of plants and animals, urinary wastes and feces from animals.
Which of the following organism do feed directly on detritus
fungi, bacteria, vultures, scavengers such as hyenas, and earthworms
Nutrients are stored in____ in the ecosystem and must be retured there fore reuse
reservoirs
Phtosysnthsis is a key process in the _____ in most ecosystems
carbon cycle
The major reservior for nitrogen on Earth is_____
atmosphere
Carbon dioxide is called a greenhouse gas. This means that
it increases the heat trapping ability of the atmosphere
The current increase in atmospheric CO2 levels is different from previous increase because____
Previous increases were never high as the current increase
All the following cycle contian gaseous phase
Nitrogen cycle, Carbon Cycle
Which of the following is true concerning the nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen fixation is mostly dependent on microooranisms
Your ecological footprint is based on teh amount of ____ you use
resources
Most of Blacksburg is the____ watershed
New River--> Gulf of Mexico
The change in population size per individual per unti time (r) refers to what kind of relationship between birth rate and death rate
the difference between them
What environmental resistance limits population growth
the population reaches an equilibrium size near the carrying capacity
The rate at which a population reproduces and grows under ideal or optimal conditions is known as the
biotic potential
If a population's birth rate increase and death rate decrease, "r" will
increase
Which populations may show exponential growth?
Lemmmings that exhibit a four year boom and bust cycle, organims invaide new habitats, blue green algae that survive at low levles most of the year then reach high density during favorable growth periods
Which of the following contributed to very low reproduction in the Peters Mountain Mallow population?
Loss of pollinators due to herbicide spraying
The cyarring capacity of the environment is determine by
the sustainable supply of resources it provides
The age structure diagram for the human population in the Mexico is pyramid shaped. This tyep of age structre represents a ____ population
rapidly growing
Which of the following statements fits the exponential population growth model?
the model predices a continuously accelerating rate of increase (or decrease) as a function of the population size
WHich of the following is an ecosystem service that humans receive from a biologically diverse world
recreation, flood control, pollination, medicine, oxygen replenishment
In yellowstone park, the removal of wolves had a wide-reaching negative effect on the level of biodiversity. Since the biodiversity of these communties depends on the presence of wovles, they are considered to be
Keystone Species
The characteristics of bacteria are_____.
Binary fission, rods, spheres, sprials, mutualisms, decomposition, pathogens
Your leftovers have a high likelihood of gorwing modly because fungi
reproduce using highly mobile spores
Which statement about virsuses is true?
They include some forms that are able to attack bacteria
A fungus that produces spores on basidia belongs to the group called
club fungi
Fungi affect humans in all the following ways
Some fungi cause human diseases, some fungi cause disease of plants that are important to humans, fungi are used as a food and in food production, fungi produce some antibiotics.
What is the basic thread-like basic structural element of fungus?
hypha
These are all correctly matched:
Diatoms-silica shells
Giant Kelp- brown algae
Amoeba-pseduopods
Green alage-relatives to land plants
Which of the following is excreted by the urinary system?
water, salts, urea, carbon dixoide, excess vitamins
Urine leaves the bladder through a single narrow tube called
urethra
the kidney is composed of millions of individual functioanl untis called
nephrons
FIltrate is initially collected in the ____ before passing through the remaineder of the nephron tubule
Bowman's capsule
The process of tubular reabsorption
occurs primarily in the proximal tubule to take nurtrients and water out of the tubule
Urea is formed from ammonia which is a product of the breakdown of
proteins
On a hot dry day, when you have experienced water loos and dehydration, your body will produced _____ urine due to an ____ release of ADH
concentrated; increased
___ is the most often used filter the blood when kidneys no longer function
Hemodialysis
Which is the human body's first line of defense agaisnt microbial attack?
External barriers
Cell-mediated immuntiy is provided by
T cells
Which type of cell secretes antibodies
plasma cells
What tyep of cell stimulates both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity
helper T cell
How are antigens recognized by T cells?
T-cell receptors recognize and bind to antigens
During conal selection, what is cloned?
a particular B-cell that is selected by the particular antigen
Whichpart of your immune system targets cancer cells?
Cell mediated immunity
Vaccinations are effective because they stimulate the production of
memory cells
These are all part of the inflammatory response
presence of histamine, sweeling, mast cells, and redness
An extreme allergic response known as anaphylactic shock is teh result of
an incorrect response by the person's immune system, the production of the wrong type of antibodies in response to an allergen, the massive release of histamine resulting in large fluid loss from capilarries
The following connective tissue are found in skin
dermis, adipose tissue, and blood
Which of these are likely locations for epithelial tissues
lining the mouth, lining the uterine tubes, in capillairies, lining the trachea
With teh exception of blood and lymph, connective tissues contain flexible, fibrous stands of
collagen
Sensory receptors in the skin are classified as ___ tissue
nervous
The hypothalamus is the ____ involved in the homeostatic control of body temperature
control center
If the action by effectors is to intensify a change in the body then ____ feedback has occured
positive
The following are functions of the skin
Protection, Maintenance of body temperature, Synthsis of Vitamin D3
Reptriles, amphibians, and most fish are invertebrates are ___ since they gain most of their heat from the environment
ectotherms
The sounds of the heart are result of
the closing of teh valves in the heart
BLood from throughout the body returns to the heart and enters the
right atrium
Which is the correct sequence of events in the cardiac cycle
atrai contract-> ventricle contract--> heart relaxes
Contraction of the left ventricle forces blood into
the aorta
The contraction of the heart is initiated by the
SA node
Which of the following components of blood plasma participate in blood clotting?
fibrinogen
Which cellular component of the blood carries large quantities of the protein hemoglobin
erythrocytes
Which of the following vessels have valves inside?
veins
Which vessels are composed of only a single layer of endothelial cells
capillaries
Which of the following groups has a 4 chambered heart?
birds
What is the function of a lymph node?
the filter lymph and destroy foreign particles
Which of the following are part of the lymphatic system?
lymph, lymph vessles, spleen, and thymus
To reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease you should reduce
your weight, your blood holestorl, your blood pressure if it is high
The hormone involved in regulating red blood cell production is
EPO
Which is the best answer to the question "how does breathing support cellular respiration?"
All of the body cells need oxygen for cellular respiration and produced carbod dioxide as waste
Air moves by ___ through the nostrils, down the trachea, through the bronchi, and bronchioles and into the alveoli
bulk flow
Which of the following protects your respiratory tract from foreign materials?
nosehair, mucus, cilia, and epiglottis
In the lungs carbon dixoide and oxygen exchange occurs by
diffusion
In the lungs, an enormous surface area for gas exchagne is provided by the
alveoli
After passing through the larynx, inhaled air enters the
Trachea
In the blood, oxygen is attached to ___ for transport
hemoglobin
____ in the medulla of the brain recieves information on blood carbon dixodie levels and adjusts breathing rate accordingly
the respiratory center
All the following are truw
nicotine--Stimulate--increases the heart rate
Carbon monoxide--impair oxygen delivery
Nicorine--addictive
During inhalation
The thoracic cavity volume increases
A person who's diet is deficient in one or more of the 9 essentail amino aicds woul be
malnourished
which of the following nutrients do not provide energy for animals?
vitamins
Which task of the human digestive system take place in the stomach?
mechanical and cehmcial breakdown
Which of the following secretions aid in chemical breakdown in the samll intestine?
pancreatic juice and bile
A wad of food called a bolus would travel
from the mouth to stomach
Peristalis is
coordinated contractions of smooth muscle of the digestive tract
Which structure mixes food with secretion to form chyme
stomach
The function of villi and microvilli is to increase the ____ in the _____.
surface area, small intestine
The digestive organ with the lowest pH is the
stomach
The process used by sporophytes to produce spores is called
meiosis
Which stage in the plant life cycle are diploid
sporophyte
What feautres do green algae have in common with plants
store food as starch, photosynthetic pigments, cellulose cell walls
Two features that evolved in land plants to protect against desiccation and allow gas exchange
cuticle and stomata
You discover a plant that has root like structures, swimming sperm and disperses with spores. No vascular tissue, seed bearing strucutres or pollen are found. This plant would most likely be placed with the
sporophtes
What is the advantage of producing seeds?
Protects the embryo and maintains dormancy
Gymnosperm differ from ferns in that gymnosperns
produce seeds, and have pollen
Which plant group is the most diverse and has domianted the Earth for more than 100 million years
angiosperms
Plant gametophytes produce
gametes
Which process is rueqired to restore diploid life stage during alternation of generations?
Fertilization
Dermal tissue might have
stomata, cuticle, leaf hairs, root hairs, and cork
Which tissue type is found in a typical plant leaf
dermal, vascular, and ground
Which plant tissue makes up the bulk of the stem in a non-woody plant?
gound tissue
Which tissue makes up the bulk of the stem in a woody plant
vascular tissue
Which tissue is composed of tracheids, vessels, parenchyma, and schlerenchyma
xylem tissue
Which is the priamry site of photosynthesis
leaf ground tissue consisting of parenchyma cells with chloroplasts
___ cells are active in cell division and allow for plant growth
Meristem
In primary growth, shoots grow taller and roots grow longer by activity of the _____
apical meristem
If you were studying a plant which had only primary growth and no secondary growth, it would not have any
development of thicker woody branches
Based on how growth rings form,trees in which of these locations are likely to NOt have obvious gorwth rings in their secondary xylem?
Central America
If bark were stripped from around at tree in a process known as girdling
the plant would be uanble to transport sugars to the roots
The majority of water and dissolved minerals absorbed by aplant is first taken up by the
root hairs
Which root process requires active transport
Uptake of most minerals
Which of the following is teh driving forec behind water movement within the xylem
Transpiration through the stomata
When ____ cells swell with water, the ___ will open
gaurd cells, stomata
The evaporation and loss of water through the leaves of a plant is called
transpiration
How do sugar molecules enter the seive tube members of the phloem
active transport
If leaves are a source of sugars and the fruit is a sink for sugar, what region of the phloem has teh highest concentration of sugars and water
the pholem in the leaf end
Mechanisms of seed and fruit dispersal include
wind and air curretns, water mechanical expulsion, buried by ants, attached to animal fur and hoof, in the digestive tract of animals,
When a bee gets nectar from a flower, the bee picks up pollen from the ___ and carries it to another flower
anthers
Reproduction in flowering plants uses double fertilization which means
one sperm nucleus fuses with one egg, and another sperm nucleus fuses with two haploid nuclei to form the endosperm
Which structres are haploid
microspores, megaspores, pollen grains
Male gametophytes develop inside the
anther
The close evolution of angiosperms and pollinators is called
coevolution
The primary function of a flower's ___ are to attract pollinators
petals
Protective coverings for the flower bud are called
sepals
Where does an embryonic plant obtain food
from the endosperm
The function of the furit is
dispersal of the seed
As fruits and seeds develop, all of the following transitions occur
an embryonic plant growth from teh zygote, a seed coat forms around the embryo and its food supply, the ovules become the seed
Many "vegetables" such as squash and tomatoes are actually furits because they
develop from the ovary of the flower
a dormant seed
allows an embryo to become inactive and survive environmental fluctuations
Many desert angiosperms require large amoutns of rain to remove ____ from their seeds to break dormancy
abscisic acid
Roots turn downward in a process known as
positive gravitropsim
Positive phototropism in stems is due to the effect of
auxin
Flowering in many angiosperms is influenced by
the length of day versus night
Pytochrom is a ___ that helps plant detect light
pigment
Flowering in short night plants would mostly likely occur
near the summer solstice
The benefit to a plant of coordinating fruit ripening and seed maturation is
seeds do not get removed from the plant before they are mature
One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel because teh rotting (over-ripe) apple produces
ethylene
Which plant cehcmical may trigger flowering?
Florigen
A shoots apex effect of keeping the lateral buds dormant is termed apical
dominance
At the close of the grwoin season, ____ occurs in leaves of some trees and is followed by abscission
senesence
What is teh evolutionary advantage to tobacco plants of producing nicotine
Defense agaisnt hervibory
What is responsible for ensuring that the relative growth rate of the roots does not overwhelm the grwoth rate of the shoots and vice versa
auxin and cytokinin
Which type of signal is responsible for the rapid movment of plant leaves of the mimosa?
Electrical