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86 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 cell processes that move many molecules from the extracellular fluid into a cell?
1) Phagocytosis
2) Pinocytosis
3) Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Pg. 052
How are substances packaged for transportation from the extracellular fluid to be brought into the a cell?
They are enclosed in a Vacuole or Vesicle.
Pg. 052
What is the process called that enables a cell to secrete products encapsulated in intracellular vesicles?
Exocytosis
Pg. 052
How is the fluid outside of a cell divided between?
It is divided between: Blood Plasma and Interstitial Fluid aka: Tissue Fluid
Pg. 052
What is the fluid called that immediately surrounds the tissue of cells?
Interstitial Fluid or Tissue Fluid
Pg. 052
How is the fluid derived that immediately surrounds the tissue of cells?
It is derived from blood plasma.
Pg. 052
What is the portion of the plasma membrane called that encases molecules to allow for many molecules to be moved from the extracellular fluid into a cell?
Vacuole
Pg. 052
What is the difference between a Vacuole and a Vesicle?
Vacuole = a large membrane bubble
Vesicle = a small membrane bubble
Pg. 052
What is the term given that defines the process of cell eating?
Phagocytosis
Pg. 053
What is the portion of a cell’s cytoplasm that can reach out and pull the cell along called and what is motion called?
Pseudopods or (False feet) and Amoeboid Motion
Pg. 053
What are some phagocytic cells in the body that can perform motion by extending their false feet?
Neutrophils and Monocytes
Pg. 053
What are Monocytes called once they leave the body’s circulatory system and enter the connective tissue?
Macrophages
Pg. 053
What are the phagocytic cells of the brain called that are related to monocytes?
Microglia
Pg. 053
True or False. Phagocytic cells are always mobile cells?
False
Pg. 053
What is the term for phagocytic cells that are immobile?
Fixed Phagocytes
Pg. 053
Where are fixed phagocytic cells located?
In small blood or lymph channels called Sinusoids
Pg. 053
What are the phagocytic cells located in sinusoids of the liver called?
Kupffer Cells
Pg. 053
Where are 3 specific places immobile phagocytic cells can be found?
Liver and in the sinusoids of the Spleen and Lymph nodes
Pg. 053
What type of phagocytic process describes the invagination of the cell’s plasma membrane?
Endocytosis
Pg. 053
What is the process called that forms an invagination of the cell’s plasma membrane that nonselectively takes substances into the cell?
Pinocytosis
Pg. 053
True or False. Most of the body’s cells are capable of nonselective Endocytosis?
True
Pg. 053
What is the term for highly selective Endocytosis?
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Pg. 054
What stimulates the plasma membrane to invaginate in the highly selective form of endocytosis?
The binding of extracellular molecules to membrane receptors.
Pg. 054
How does cholesterol need to transported in the blood?
Attached to Carrier Proteins in the blood’s plasma.
Pg. 054
What is the process called that releases cellular products into the extracellular fluid?
Exocytosis
Pg. 054
What produces the vesicles that are involved in the process of releasing cellular products into the interstitial fluid?
The Golgi Complex or Golgi Apparatus
Pg. 054
What are 3 examples of the process of releasing cellular products into the extracellular fluid?
1) Digestive enzymes released from the pancreatic Exocrine glands.
2) Hormones released form Endocrine glands.
3) Neurotransmitters released from axon terminals of neurons.
Pg. 054
What type of transportation process is responsible for the release of insulin?
Exocytosis
Pg. 054
What cellular transportation process adds portions to the plasma membrane of the cell?
Exocytosis
Pg. 054
What cellular transportation process removes portions of a cells plasma membrane?
Endocytosis
Pg. 054
What is the term given to describe what endocytosis and exocytosis does to the plasma membrane of the cell?
Two-Way Trafficking
Pg. 054
What else can be removed or added by the two-way trafficking of plasma membrane besides just the cell’s plasma membrane?
Specific membrane proteins
Pg. 054-055
What is occurring in Diffusion?
Substances move from higher concentrations to lower concentrations
Pg. 055
What type of transport is Diffusion?
Passive transport
Pg. 055
What is required to move substances across the plasma membrane from a lower to a higher concentration?
ATP
Pg. 055
What type of transport is the process of moving substances from a lower concentration to a higher concentration?
Active transport
Pg. 055
What are molecules and ions dissolved in water called?
Solutes
Pg. 055
What are the 2 general substances in a solution?
Solvent and dissolved solutes
Pg. 055
What is the term given for the constant state of random motion of the substances in a solution?
Brownian Motion
Pg. 055
Why causes substances in a solution to undergo Brownian motion?
The heat
or
Thermal energy of the individual substances.
Pg. 055
What is the terminology used to describe the process that occurs because a solution has a higher concentration of a particular substance as compared to another, and more of that substance will move by chance in the direction of the lower concentration than in the direction of the higher concentration?
Concentration Gradient
Pg.055
What process does the random motion of molecules allow for?
Diffusion
Pg. 056
When does Net Diffusion stop?
When the concentrations are equal in all parts of the solution.
Pg. 056
What are passive transport processes a result of?
They are a result of Net Diffusion.
Pg. 056
What does the rate of passive transport depend on?
1) The steepness of the concentration gradient.
2) The permeability of the plasma membrane.
3) The temperature of the solution.
4) The surface area of the membrane
Pg. 056-057
When will no passive transport occur?
When there is no concentration difference between the 2 sides of the plasma membrane.
Pg. 056
How can nonpolar molecules cross the cell’s phospholipid bi-layer?
Diffusion
Pg. 057
How do inorganic ions and water molecules cross the cell’s plasma membrane?
Through specific protein channels in the membrane
Pg. 057
How do small organic molecules cross the cell’s plasma membrane?
Through specific carrier proteins.
Pg. 057
What is the net diffusion of nonpolar molecules, ions and water across the double phospholipid layers, through protein channels in the plasma membrane called?
Simple diffusion
Pg. 058
What is the term given for the type of passive transportation involving membrane carrier proteins that enables movement of substances so that the direction of net movement is from a higher to lower concentration?
Facilitated Diffusion
Pg. 058
What 2 processes are forms of passive transportation?
Simple Diffusion
and
Facilitated Transport
Pg. 058
What type of transportation involves molecules and ions being transported against their concentration gradients?
Active Transport
Pg. 058
What does facilitated transport and active transport have in common?
They both require carrier proteins.
Pg. 058
What are carrier proteins in active transport also called?
"Pumps"
Pg. 058
What is the net diffusion of water across a membrane called?
Osmosis
Pg. 058
What is the concentration of oxygen inside the cells compared to that in the extracellular fluid?
Oxygen Concentration = Lower inside the cell
Oxygen Concentration = Higher in the extracellular fluid
Pg. 059
What is the concentration of carbon dioxide inside the cells compared to that in the extracellular fluid?
Carbon Dioxide concentration = Lower in the extracellular fluid
Carbon Dioxide concentration = Higher inside the cell
Pg. 059
What is the name of protein channels that are not always open called?
Gated Channels
Pg. 059
How can ion-gated channels be opened or closed?
They can be opened or closed by portions of the polypeptide chains that compose the channels.
Pg. 059
What is required for the production of nerve and muscle impulses?
The opening and closing of Na+ and K+ channels
Pg. 059
What 2 things conditions must be present for osmosis to occur?
1) A concentration gradient across the membrane.
2) The membrane is more permeable to water than it is to the solute.
Pg. 060
True or False. Osmosis is a type of passive transport.
True
Pg. 060
Which has a higher water concentration? A flask with 10 grams of glucose per liter or a flask with 13 grams of glucose per liter.
The 10 g/L flask.
Pg. 060
What is the name of the force required to stop osmosis?
Osmotic Pressure
Pg. 060
Given 2 glucose solutions. Solution A has a solute concentration of 3 g/L and Solution B has a solute concentration of 9 g/L. Which solution has a higher osmotic pressure and by how much?
Solution B.
The osmotic pressure is 3 times as great.
Pg. 061
What term describes solution concentrations?
Osmolarity
Pg. 061
Which flask has more solute molecules per liter? Flask A which has 9 grams of glucose per liter, or Flask B which has 11 grams of sucrose per liter?
Flask A has more solute molecules per liter.
Pg. 061
True or False. Water will undergo net diffusion from the side of lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration, based on the weight of the solutes and is not based on the number of solute molecules or ions per liter.
False
Pg. 061
What is the total solute concentration in normal blood plasma?
0.3 osmolar (300 mOsM or 300 milliosmolar)
Pg. 061
What is the term given to describe how solutions compare to blood plasma?
Tonicity
Pg. 062
What is the term that defines 2 solutions having the same osmolarity and osmotic pressure? (Example: The cytoplasm of a red blood cell and surrounding plasma)
Isotonic
Pg. 062
What is it assumed if a solution is called isotonic without a specified reference solution?
The reference is assumed to be blood plasma.
Pg. 062
What are the other names given to describe Isotonic Saline?
Normal Saline or Physiological Saline
Pg. 062
What is Isotonic glucose called and why?
5% Dextrose
It is a concentration of 5 g/100 ml of water.
Pg. 063
What is a solution with a lower osmolarity and osmotic pressure than plasma or a cell’s cytoplasm called?
Hyoptonic
Pg. 063
What will happen to cells placed in a hypotonic solution?
They will gain water, swell or burst.
Pg. 063
What is the term that used to define disrupted cells?
Lysis
Pg. 063
What is the term used to define disrupted red blood cells?
Hemolysis
Pg. 063
What is the term used to define disruption of any type of cell?
Cytolysis
Pg. 063
What is the term that defines a solution with a higher osmolarity and osmotic pressure than plasma?
Hypertonic
Pg. 063
What will happen to a cell place in a hypertonic solution?
It will shrink or loose water by osmosis.
Pg. 063
What is the term to describe the state of a cell placed in a hypertonic solution?
Crenated
Pg. 063
What specific protein channel allows the simple diffusion of water molecules to occur a faster rate?
Aquaporins
Pg. 063
What produces the specific protein channels that allow for the simple diffusion of water molecules to occur a faster rate and what inserts them?
Produced by the Endoplasmic Reticulum
Inserted by the Golgi Apparatus
Pg. 063
What hormone stimulates insertion of aquaporin channels in the kidneys so that more water can be retained and less urine is excreted?
Antidiuretic Hormone
or
ADH
Pg. 063