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83 Cards in this Set

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What does the term metabolic pathway refer to?
It means the sequence of chemical changes produced by a network of enzymes.
Pg. 037, 039
What is the term that refers to the sequence of chemical changes produced by a network of enzymes that provides energy for the cell?
Cell respiration
Pg. 037
How is a portion of the energy captured in cellular respiration?
It is captured in the chemical bonds that hold the last phosphate groups of the molecule of ATP.
Pg. 037
What molecule functions as the universal energy carrier of the cell?
ATP
Pg. 037
What does the first law of thermodynamics state?
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Pg. 037
What kind of energy is used to make ATP?
Chemical bond energy
Pg. 037
In general what is occurring in the process of photosynthesis?
Plants use energy from sunlight to convert Carbon Dioxide and Water into Glucose.
Pg. 037
What do scientists say regarding the molecule of Glucose compared to the molecules of Carbon Dioxide and Water?
Scientists say glucose has more Free Energy or The Energy available to do work.
Pg. 037
What is released when the chemical bonds formed by photosynthesis in glucose are broken?
Energy is released in the form of heat.
Pg. 037
What is the definition of one calorie?
It is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 cubic centimeter of water 1 degree Celsius.
Pg. 037
True or False, calories are used to measure the energy contained in food.
False. kilocalories are the units used to measure the energy contained in food commonly expressed as Calories with a capital C.
Pg. 038
In production of energy for the cell, approximately how much energy released escapes as heat?
60%
Pg. 038
What is an Exergonic reaction?
It is the energy-releasing process, by breaking chemical bonds.
Pg. 038
What does the exergonic process of the breakdown of food directly drive and what does this result in?
It drives an Endergonic reaction. This then results in the addition of an inorganic phosphate group to the molecule of Adenosiine Diphosphate forming a molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate.
Pg. 038
Approximately how much metabolic energy released is trapped in the phosphate bonds of ATP?
40%
Pg. 038
How does ATP provide energy?
It provides energy when the chemical bond connecting the third phosphate to the other two phosphates is broken.
Pg. 038
Why must cells produce their own ATP?
Because, Organic molecules with phosphate groups are not able to pass through the plasma membranes of cells.
Pg. 038
What term describes all the chemical changes that occur in our cells?
Metabolism
Pg. 038
What occurs at a branch point in a metabolic pathway?
Two or more different enzymes use the same molecule as their substrate.
Pg. 039
What can control the direction taken by a metabolic pathway?
Gene activation/deactivation and Enzyme activation/deactivation.
Pg. 039
What pathway converts a Glucose molecule into 2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid?
Glycolysis
Pg. 040
Where does the pathway occur that converts a glucose molecule into 2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid?
In the cell’s Cytosol
Pg. 040
What is pyruvic acid converted into in the absence of Oxygen?
Lactic Acid
Pg. 040
What is pyruvic acid converted into in the presence of Oxygen?
Carbon Dioxide and Water
Pg. 040
What does the first step in cellular respiration of Glucose produce?
2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid or 2 3-carbon long molecules
Pg. 040
How many useable “Universal energy carriers of the cell” are produced in Glycolysis?
2 ATP
Pg. 040
How many “Universal energy carriers of the cell” are produced in the first step of cellular respiration?
4 ATP
Pg. 040
What does the first step of cellular respiration produce besides the “Universal energy carriers of the cell?”
2 NADH
Pg. 040
How is NADH formed by Glycolysis?
Glycolysis adds 2 Hydrogens to NAD.
Pg. 040
What organelle is required for aerobic respiration?
Mitochondria
Pg. 040
What must occur in order for the first step of cellular respiration to continue?
NADH must be converted back to NAD.
Pg. 041
How is NADH converted back to NAD?
NADH transfers hydrogens to another molecule.
Pg. 041
How is lactic acid formed?
It is formed in the absence of oxygen, and NADH transfers its hydrogen ions and electrons to pyruvic acid.
Pg. 041
What kind of pathway converts glucose to lactic acid?
Anaerobic pathway
Pg. 041
The anaerobic pathway that produces lactic acid is also called __________________________.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Pg. 041
What is the net gain of ATP per molecule of glucose made in lactic acid fermentation?
2 ATP
Pg. 041
How many molecules of Carbon Dioxide are released during Lactic Acid fermentation?
Zero
Pg. 041
What is pyruvic acid converted into in alcoholic fermentation?
Ethyl Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide
Pg. 041
How is Ethyl alcohol produced in alcoholic fermentation?
How is Ethyl alcohol produced in alcoholic fermentation?
Pg. 041
What is the terminal hydrogen ion electron acceptor in alcoholic fermentation?
Acetaldehyde
Pg. 041
What type of cell respiration produces the most amount of ATP?
Aerobic Respiration
Pg. 041
Where do the 2 3-carbon long molecules go once they have been produced in aerobic cellular respiration?
The matrix of the mitochondria
Pg. 041
What is produced once the molecules of pyruvic acid enters the matrix of the mitochondria?
1 molecule of Carbon Dioxide per pyruvic acid.
Pg. 041
Once a carbon has been removed from the 3-carbon long molecule, what does the remaining molecule combine with in the matrix of the mitochondria?
It combines with a transfer molecule called Coenzyme A resulting in the Acetyl Coenzyme A or Acetyl CoA.
Pg. 041
What is the process of converting Pyruvic Acid to Acetyl Coenzyme A called?
Transition Reaction
Pg. 042
How many Carbon Dioxide molecules are produced in the transition reaction for each glucose molecule?
2 molecules of Carbon Dioxide
Pg. 042
What happens to the carbons in the acetyl groups once they reach the Krebs cycle?
They are released as carbon dioxide.
Pg. 042
How many molecules of ATP are gained in the Citric Acid Cycle per molecule of glucose?
2
Pg. 042
What does each turn of the Krebs Cycle produce per glucose molecule?
2 molecules of Carbon Dioxide
1 molecule of ATP
1 molecule FADH2
3 molecules of NADH+ H+
Pg. 042
What is FAD derived from?
Riboflavin - a B Vitamin
Pg. 042
Where does the Krebs cycle occur?
In the matrix of the mitochondria
Pg. 042
Where does the final step of aerobic cellular respiration occur?
The Cristae of the mitochondria or the folding of the inner mitochondrial membrane
Pg. 042
What is the final step of aerobic cellular respiration called?
The Electron Transport System or ETS or Electron Transport Chain or ETC
Pg. 042
What transports the electrons to the electron transport chain?
NADH and FADH2
Pg. 042
What are many of the proteins in the Electron Transport Chain called and what do they contain?
Cytochromes and they contain Iron
Pg. 042
Where does the electron transport chain pump the hydrogen ions?
Into the intermembranous space or the space between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes.
Pg. 042
What substance serves as the terminal hydrogen ion electron acceptor at the final step of aerobic cellular respiration?
Oxygen
Pg. 042
What substance is formed at the very last step of aerobic respiration?
Water
Pg. 043
Describe the events that occur during the last step of aerobic respiration.
Hydrogen ions are moved from the intramembranous space into the matrix, this movement then powers an enzyme called ATP synthetase, this enzyme then catalyzes the conversion of ADP and Phosphate into ATP.
Pg. 043
What is the production of ATP by means of the electron transport chain called?
Oxidative Phosporylation
Pg. 043
When there is a lack of oxygen what pathways in cellular respiration will be stopped?
Transition Reaction
Krebs Cycle
And
Electron Transport Chain
Pg. 043
What process is the only energy producing pathway active during the absence of oxygen?
Gycolysis or Lactic Acid Fermentation
Pg. 043
How many molecules of ATP are produced per molecule of glucose in the mitochondria?
34-36 ATP molecules
Pg. 043
Why are well-conditioned athletes much less likely to go into lactic acid fermentation?
1) They have a higher number of mitochondria and are more able to rely on aerobic means of ATP generation.
2) Since there are a large number of mitochondria, they are able to start consuming oxygen as soon as the ADP concentration starts to rise, due to muscle contraction and the breakdown of ATP.
3) The faster rise in oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise means lactic acid fermentation production is less and will therefore require less oxygen needed to break down any accumulated lactic acid once they stop exercising.
Pg. 043
True or False. Cell metabolism and the need for ATP are inversely related.
False. The need for ATP is reduced when the cell temperature decreases.
Pg. 043
What vessel brings blood sugar from the intestines to the liver?
The Hepatic Portal Vein
Pg. 044
What can the liver do if blood glucose concentration is high after a meal?
It can remove a certain amount of blood glucose and convert it into polysaccharides (glycogen) and store it in the liver.
Pg. 044
What protein is responsible for the movement of blood sugar into liver cells and skeletal muscles?
Insulin
Pg. 044
What is the only organ able to secrete glucose into the blood and what is this process called?
The Liver

This process is called Glycogenolysis
Pg. 044
True or False. The liver stores much more glycogen than do the skeletal muscles and this is one of the reasons why the liver is the only organ able to secrete glucose into the blood.
False. The muscles store more glycogen collectively than the liver.
Pg. 044
Why can’t the skeletal muscles secrete glucose into the blood?
Because when glycogen is broken down, it forms glucose 6-phosphate, which is an organic molecule and organic molecules with phosphate groups cannot pass through a cell’s plasma membrane.
Pg. 044
Why is the liver the only organ able to secrete glucose into the blood?
Because it has Glucose 6- Phosphatase, an enzyme able to remove the phosphate group allowing the glucose to be able to enter the blood.
Pg. 044
What are the 2 sources of blood glucose secretions?
The Intestines and The Liver
Pg. 044
From what source does the liver and resting skeletal muscles prefer to get their energy?
From the aerobic respiration of fatty acids.
Pg. 044
What type of tissue stores triglycerides as large fat droplets?
Adipose Tissue
Pg. 044
What enzyme is active when fat is being used for energy and what products does this enzyme produce?
Lipase

A Triglyceride molecule is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
Pg. 045
When a fatty acid is used for energy, what is the hydrocarbon chain is converted into?
Acetyl CoA molecules
Pg. 045
What are Glycerol molecules converted into when they are used for energy?
Pyruvic Acid
Pg. 045
How are proteins used for energy?
Energy can be derived from amino acids obtained by food proteins or the break down of the body’s muscle proteins.
Pg. 045
What are the amino acids of the hydrolyzed proteins converted into in order to be aerobically respired?
1) Pyruvic Acid
2) Acetyl CoA
3) Isocitric acid (one of the Krebs cycle molecules)
Pg. 045
What must be removed in order for amino acids to be used in order to aerobically produce energy?
The Amine Group
Pg. 045
What will be formed if the Amine group is allowed to enter the blood?
Ammonia
Pg. 045
What organ is responsible for detoxifying ammonia and what does it convert it into?
The Liver

Urea a less toxic molecule.
Pg. 045