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87 Cards in this Set

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What heart chamber pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation?
The Right Ventricle
Pg. 192
What heart chamber pumps blood into the systemic circulation?
The Left Ventricle
Pg. 192
What produces the sounds of the heart?
The closing of the AV and Semilunar valves.
Pg. 192
What are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart called?
Arteries
Pg. 192
What are the blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart called?
Veins
Pg. 192
What are the chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins called?
Atria
Pg. 192
What is the name of the structure that separates the “right pump” from the “left pump” of the heart?
The Septum
Pg. 192
What is the general name of the valves that separate the two atria from the two ventricles?
The Atrioventricular Valves
Pg. 192
What is the name of the AV valve that separates the structure that receives blood from the systemic circuit and the structure that pumps blood into the pulmonary circuit?
The Tricuspid Valve
or
Right AV valve
Pg. 192
What is the name of the AV valve that separates the structure that receives blood from the pulmonary circuit and the structure that pumps blood into the systemic circuit?
The Bicuspid Valve
or
Left AV valve
or
Mitral Valve
Pg. 192
What is the name of the structure that supports the structure that separates the two atria and two ventricles?
Chordae Tendineae
Pg. 192
What is the name of the structures that separate the ventricles from the arterial system?
Semilunar Valves
Pg. 193
What is the name of the structure that separates the structure that pumps deoxygenated blood into its respective circuit?
The Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Pg. 193
What is the name of the structure that separates the structure that pumps oxygenated blood into it respective circuit?
The Aortic Semilunar Valve
Pg. 193
What structure does the right atrium pump blood into?
It pumps blood into the Pulmonary Trunk
Pg. 193
What does the pulmonary trunk divide into?
It divides into the Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries
Pg. 193
How does oxygenated blood leave the lungs?
It leaves the lungs in 4 Pulmonary Veins and returns to the Left Atrium
Pg. 193
What is the path of the Pulmonary Circuit?
The Right Ventricle -> The Lungs -> The Left Artrium
Pg. 193
What is the name of the structure that the left ventricle pumps blood into?
The Aorta
Pg. 193
What is the name of the vessels that bring blood to the myocardium?
Coronary Arteries
Pg. 193
What is the name of the vessels that bring blood away from the myocardium?
Cardiac Veins
Pg. 193
What can blockage of one or more of the myocardial arteries and their branches called?
An Infarction
Pg. 193
What is the area of dead tissue that result from a blockage of the myocardial arteries and their branches called?
An Infarct
Pg. 193
What is the name of the procedure that can be used to restore blood flow to an infracted area?
A Coronary Bypass
Pg. 193
What is the name of the 2 large veins that return blood to the right atrium?
The Superior Vena Cava
and
The Inferior Vena Cava
Pg. 193
What is the path of the Systemic Circulation?
The Left Ventricle -> to all body systems -> The Right Atrium
Pg. 193
What is the repeating pattern of contraction and relaxation of the heart’s chambers called?
The Cardiac Cycle
Pg. 194
In the cardiac cycle, what is the contraction phase called?
Systole
Pg. 194
In the cardiac cycle what is the relaxation phase called?
Diastole
Pg. 194
What is the contraction of the atria adding to the total volume of blood that will be in the ventricles upon the termination of their diastole called?
End-Diastolic Volume
Pg. 194
What is the amount of blood ejected by the contraction of the ventricles called?
Stroke Volume
Pg. 194
What is the name of the event when the ventricles begin contracting at systole, the pressure within them rises sharply, becoming greater than the pressure in the atria and snapping the AV valves shut?
Isovolumetric Contraction
Pg. 195
What is the name of the event when the pressure in the ventricles becomes greater than the pressure in the arteries and the semilunar valves open?
Ejection
Pg. 195
What is the name of the event when the pressure in the ventricles falls below the pressure in the arteries and the pressure difference causes the semilunar valves to snap shut thus preventing backflow?
Isovolumetric Relaxation
Pg. 195
What is the name of the event w hen the pressure in the ventricles falls below the pressure in the atria and the AV valves open?
Rapid Filling
Pg. 195
What is the name of the event that empties the final amount of blood into the ventricles to complete the end-diastolic volume, just before the next ventricular contraction (systole)?
Atrial Contraction
Pg. 195
What does the first heart sound (the soft “lub” sound) correspond to?
It is produced by closing of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular systole.
Pg. 195
What does the second heart sound (the louder “dup” sound) correspond to?
It is produced by closing of the semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole.
Pg. 195
What is the normal pacemaker region of the heart called and what are the generation of the action potentials due to?
The SA node
Action potentials are due to an automatic depolarization
Pg. 196
What does depolarization of the heart produce?
Contraction
or
Systole
Pg. 196
What does repolarization of the heart produce?
Relaxation
or
Diastole
Pg. 196
Where is the Sinoatrial node located?
It is located in the roof of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava.
Pg. 196
What can the automatic depolarization of the SA node occurring during diastole be called?
Pacemaker Potential
Pg. 196
What specific system increases the cardiac rate?
The Sympathoadrenal System
Pg. 197
How does the sympathoadrenal system increase the cardiac rate?
Through the action of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Pg. 197
What nerves can decrease the cardiac rate?
Parasympathetic nerves
Pg. 197
What substance produces a decrease in the cardiac rate?
Acetylcholine
Pg. 197
When does the myocardial action potential begin?
It begins with the opening of voltage-gated Na+
Pg. 197
True or False. Myocardial action potential has a very long plateau phase.
True
Pg. 197
What does the important cardiac drug digitalis do?
It indirectly acts to raise the intracellular concentration of Ca 2+
Pg. 197
What is the condition called when for various reasons the heart can’t pump enough blood to the body’s organs?
Congestive Heart Failure
Pg. 198
What is the machine that monitors the heart’s electrical activity called?
An Electrocardiograph
Pg. 198
What is the printed recording of the machine that monitors the heart’s electrical activity called?
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
Pg. 198
What portion of an EKG refers to when the SA node in the right atrium becomes depolarized and the action potential spreads immediately through both atria?
The “P Wave”
Pg. 198
What portion of an EKG refers to when the conducting tissue the (AV node, bundle of His, left and right bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers) carries action potentials into the ventricles?
The “QRS Complex”
Pg. 198
Why can’t repolarization of the atria be seen in an ECG pattern?
Because atrial repolariztions are covered up by the QRS complex
Pg. 198
What portion of an EKG refers to the repolarization of the ventricles?
The “T Wave”
Pg. 198
The _______ wave occurs when the atria depolarize and contract.
The “P Wave”
Pg. 198
The depolarization of the ventricles produces the ______.
The “QRS Complex”
Pg. 198
The repolarization of the ventricles produces the ______ wave.
The “T Wave”
Pg. 199
What is the term that refers to a cardiac rate slower than 60 beats per minute?
Bradycardia
Pg. 199
What is the term that refers to a resting cardiac rate faster than 100 beats per minute?
Tachycardia
Pg. 199
What term is used to describe when heart contractions coordinated but extremely rapid (200-300 beats per minute)?
Flutter
Pg. 199
What term is used to describe when different myocardial cells produce action potentials and contract at different times?
Fibrillation
Pg. 199
How can fibrillation be stopped?
It can be stopped by Electrical Defibrillation
Pg. 199
The __________ is the volume of blood pumped per minute by a ventricle.
The Cardiac Output
Pg. 199
How is cardiac output regulated?
It is regulated by adjustments in the cardiac rate and stroke volume.
Pg. 199
The ________ depends on the end-diastolic volume and on the contraction strength of the ventricle.
The Stroke Volume
Pg. 199
What does contraction strength depend on?
It depends on the End-Diastolic Volume
or
The contraction of the atria adds to the total volume of blood that will be in the ventricles at the end of their diastole.
Pg. 199 and 194
What is equal to the stroke volume multiplied by the cardiac rate and what does it measure?
Cardiac Output
It measures the pumping ability of a ventricle
Pg. 199
What structure transports blood from the ventricles?
The Aterial Tree
Pg. 200
What is the pathway of blood when it is ejected from the ventricles?
Elastic Arteries -> Muscular Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries
Pg. 200
What is the pathway of blood when it leaves the capillaries?
Capillaries -> Venules -> Small Veins -> Larger Veins -> Venae Cavas
Pg. 200
What is the 3 tissue layers of Arteries and Veins composed of?
Tunica Externa = composed of connective tissue
Tunica Meida = composed of smooth muscle
Tunica interna = inner endothelial lining which is a simple squamous epithelium
Pg. 200
Which layer is thicker in an artery than in a vein of similar size?
The Tunica Media
or
An artery has a much thicker smooth muscle than does a vein of similar size
Pg. 200
What is it called when the aterial wall is weakened or damaged and then bulges out?
An Aneurysm
Pg. 200-201
True or False. Smaller arteries have greater resistance to blood flow.
True
Pg. 201
How can blood flow into a particular capillary bed be diverted?
Through an Arterovenous Shunt
Pg. 201
What can cut off blood flow to into a particular capillary bed?
Precapillary Sphincters
Pg. 201
What are capillaries called in which the adjacent endothelia cells are closely joined together?
Conitinuous Capillaries
Pg. 201
What are capillaries called in which there are wide distances between endothelial cells and where are they found?
Discontinuous Capillaries
or
They are found in the Liver, Bone Marrow and Spleen
Pg. 201
What does end-diastolic volume depend on?
It depends on the venous return
Pg. 202
True or False. One way valves are present in all veins.
False. One way valves are not present in the great veins (venae cavae)
Pg. 202
Besides the skeletal muscle pump what other structure also aids venous return?
It is aided by contraction of the diaphragm during breathing
Pg. 203
What are the sensors for arterial blood pressure called and where are they located?
The are called Baroreceptors
They are located in the Aortic Arch and Carotid Sinuses
Pg. 203
Where do the baroreceptors relay their information?
To the Cardiac Control Center and Vasomotor Center in the Medulla Oblongata
Pg. 203
What symptoms would a person who has a fall in blood pressure display?
Rapid Pulse, due to increased cardiac rate
and
Cold, Clammy Skin, due to cutaneous vasoconstriction
Pg. 203