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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Avifauna overview
High diversity
~760 spp native and natural migrants
Many 'terrestrial' birds restrivted to OZ and New Guinea
cant fly
orig in OZ --> asia when they collided and some came into OZ
no other representatives in the world, means they originated here
Traditional theory
Extant avian fauna formed from series of invasions from Asia via Indonesia and New Guinea, ~90 MYA

BUT

now know that 90MYA in the cretaceous OZ was thousands of miles away from asia --> prob not correct
Australia's first bird
Early cretaceous of S Victoria (115MYA)
maybe a featherd dino
Origin of modern avifauna
*Derived from:
Gondwana
African/Asian
*Asian/Austro-Papua fauna and flora are separated by Wallace and Weber's lines
*Now know- derived from a combination of ancient Gondwanan stock and more recent invasions from Asia/africa via the indonesia archipelago
*most i from ancient Gondwanan origin
emus and casuaries
moas and kiwis
ostrich
rhea
parrots
kingfishers
passerines
Wallace's line/Weber's line
elephants VS marsupials
Line of australian plate and SE asia plate
Causes a trench of deep water
Weber's line-not as distint
Passerines
Perching Birds
Tendon in legs allow them to perch
58% of living birds (5247 of 9021 spp)
~308 spp native to Australia
Gondwana origin ~85-90 MYA from DNA hybridization and sequencing
3 Sub orders
Acanthisittidae
Oligomyodi
Passers
Acanthisittidae
New Zealand wrens seperated first ~82-85MYA when NZ broke away from Gondwanaland
Oligomyodi
'suboscines'
evolved in western Gondwanaland (africa/india/southA)
~80MYA
*Only Australian- 4 spp of Pitta
recent arrival (~40000MYA)
inhabit rainforests
feed on giant panda snails
Started in old world -> asia -> australia
Passers
oscines
song birds
evolved in OZ when it seperated from antartica
~35-40 MYA
55-60MYA split into 2 subgroups
1. corvida
2. passerida
Corvida
Australian song birds ~250 OZ spp
Most confined to OZ/New Guinea
Groups
Menuroidae
Meliphagoidea
Corvoidea
Passerida
Old world insect eaters
New world insect eaters
Finches
~40 OZ spp
History of Corvida
Found in other continents because they are derived from ancestors that escaped OZ 20-30MYA
Some returned and re-invaded OZ via I archipelago ~10MYA
Menuroidae (1)
Lyrebirds(2)- imitate noises
Bowerbirds(6)- males make a bower: collect debris and scatter it around to attract the females
Tree Creepers(6)
Super Family Meliphagoidea
Honey Eaters (57)
Australian Robins (19)
Fairy-wrens(9), Emu-wrens(2), Grass-wrens(8)
Thornbills(25)
Pardalotes(5)
Scrub-wrens(9)
Australian magpies, butcherbirds and currawongs (8)
Crow and Ravens (5)
Orioles, figbirds, cucoo-shrikes and trillers(11)
Super family Corvidae
Magpielarks and monarch-flycatchers (13)
whistlers and strike thrushes (14)
fantails(4)
Passerida
Swallows(6)
White eyes (3)
Old world warblers (9)
Grass finches (15spp)
Austro-papuan origion- moved into asia and radiated to Africa and NAmerica before reinvading OZ
Rattites
Emu
Cassowary
Megapodes
'mound-builders'
Brush turkeys
Malle-fowl- mound from sand
Temp of mound determines sex
hot female, cold male
Parrots, cockatoos, rosellas and lorikeets
56 spp
Kingfishers
Alecdinidea
10 spp
ie) Kookaburra
Nomadism
To survive unpredictable rainfall in arid zone
1. Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus)
When lake Eyre floods (~10years) juge breeding colonies of pelicans arrive
When the lake dries up, they peace out to the coast
2. Seed eating birds (zebra finches, budgerigars and galahs)
Follow recent rains in the arid zone as grasses and shrubs are producing seeds in abundance
Seeds dont have water so they drink every 203days- visit dams and waterholes