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71 Cards in this Set

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What is Biology?
The science or study of Life. The study of all living things.
What is Biology of humans?
The study of life of humans
What is zoology?
study of animals
What is Microbiology?
Study of viruses and bacteria.
What is Botany?
Study of plants
The scale of study may be:
Molecular, anatomical/physiological, cellular, ecological.
What are the 7 requirements of Life?
1. Molecular Composition
2. Metabolism
3. Cellular Organization
4. Homeostasis
5. Responsiveness
6. Growth and Reproduction
7. Evolution
What is Molecular Composition?
all living organisms have and use the same kinds of chemical molecules. these molecules are different than those of no-living things.
All are comosed of living matter called________that is composed of________.
protoplasm; organic compounds
What is metabolism?
The chemical transformation of raw materials to pruduce energy for life.
Energy is in the form of chemical called____?
ATP
Metabolism is subdivided into these 4 areas?
Nutrition
Respiration
Synthesis
Growth
NRSG
The cell is the smallest unit of an organism that exhibits the _________?
characteristic of life
Cells come from existing cells through___________?
reproduction
What is Homeostasis?
All living things maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
The ability to grow and reproduce is determined by the genetic material of cells called_______.
DNA
All living things pass through a characteristic life cycle____> _______>_____.
Egg, immature stage, mature adult
What is evolution?
genetic change over time
How did life begin?
"The short answer is we really don't know"
Successful experiments will either _____ or ______ a hypothesis.
support; refute
Who was Stanley Miller?
This man, in 1953, set up an experiment to simulate primitive earth and test this hypothesis on the origin of life.
The atmosphere of the early earth was composed of 4 common elements- ______ that formed a______.
H, C, O, N. ; Primordial Cloud.
What would have been the source of an electrical discharge in the early earth?
Lightning
How did simple organic molecule become living organisms?
Interactions with electrical storms resulted in the formation of simple organic molecules suce as glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides.
Nucleotides were transformed into self-replicating molecules called______.
RNA
_____develop into structure and into enzymes to stimulat4e chemical reactions.
Proteins
_____developed to synthesize proteins.
RNA
_____developed to transmit heredity during reproduction
DNA
The earliest cell type was the________
Prokaryotic cell
What kingdom are bacteria part of?
Monera
Prokaryotic cells do not need oxygen and survive by________
anaerobic metabolism
The prokaryotic cell type was then replaced by the_________-the dominant cell type on Earth
Eukaryotic cell
Humans are members of what kingdom?
anaimalia.
How many groups of animals does the animalia contain?
35 groups called phylum
What phylum are humans a part of?
Phylum Chordata
What are the 4 defining human characteristics?
Bipedalism, opposable thumbs, large brains, and capacity fo complex language.
BOLC
The human body consists of________ of cells?
Trillions
What are the 3 steps of the cell doctrine?
1. All living things are composed of cell and cell products

2. A single cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all the characteristics of life.

3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
Who was Robert Hooke?
Coined the term "cell" to idenitfy the tiny compartments he found in cork. Used a primitve microscope.
Who was Anton van Leeuwenhoek?
Known as "the father of the microscope"
Whats the difference between prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells lack a true nucleous and have few organelsses. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleous and have true organelss.
What are phospholipids?
Fat molecules containging phosphorus.
What is the structure of the cell membrane?
1. 2 layers of phospholipids.
2. several proteins embedded in the phospholipids for transport.
3. molecules of choldestrerol for rigidity
4. carboyhydrate surface makers for cell recognition.
Phospholipid moleculesa are arranged with two ends. What are they?
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends
Hydrophilic means?
H20 Loving
Hydrophobic means?
H20 fearing
What is diffusion?
Involves movement of small molecules from an area of high concentration through the cell membrane to an area of low concentration.
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of H20 from an area of high concentration to low concentration.
What forms the solute?
The cell membrane separates unequal concentrations of some lare moleecule.
What is isotonic condition?
Some amount of water enters and leaves the cell.
What is hypotonic condition?
More water enters than leaves. Cell swells
What is hypertonic condition?
More water leaves then enters; Cell shrinks.
movement of charged molecules or ions and large molecules into the cell against a conventration gradient
Active transport
Active transport is undertaken by protein molecules in the cell membrane called_________.
carrier proteins.
the formation of vesicles or vacuoles to move materials through the cell membrane into a cell.
endocytosis
Also know as "cell drinking" the cell takes in large molecules that are H20 soluable outside membrane.
Pinocytosis
numerous foldings of the cell membrane to increase the absorptive surface
microvilli
Cell junctions between adjacent cells. Form spot wields to anchor cells. Increase exchange of substances between cells. Increased permeability.
Desmosomes
A system of internal membranes that form an extensive network throughout the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the function of smooth endoplamicreticulum?
synthesis macromolecules
What is the function of rough endoplasmic reticulum?
to synthesis proteins
Small denses organels found attached as rough endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes
What is the funcions of the goldi apparatus.
Sythesis of carbohydrates such as mucus.
2. Packaging of proteins into enzymes
3. Formation of new membranes.
The powerhouses of the cell
mitochondria
What is the function of Mitochondria?
Site of cellular respiratoin a process in which organic molecules are broken down to produce cellular energy.
specialized protein mlecules that speed the breakdown of large organic molecules to small molecules.
Hydrolytic enzymes
What r the the two functions of lysossomes?
Intracellular digestion and breakdown of cell after death
small membrane bound spheres that enclose and sote productos of cells or materials formed by paocytosis
vesicles
large storage spaces formed by pagocytosis to store food or secretory products
vacuoles
narow elongate hollow rods
microtubules
narrow elongate solid rods
microfiliments