Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Of the Enzymes listed below, which one breaks a carbon-carbon bond in the Embden-Myerhof pathway?
a. Isomerase
b. Dehydrogenase
c. Aldolase
d. Esterase
Enzyme that eletronically rearranges bonds within a molecule and thereby generates new functional groups
a. Isomerase
b. Transferase
c. Phosphatase
d. Kinase
To determine which of two different substances the worst bacterial nutrient is, one would most likely
Compare growth curves in presence of each substance
a. Compare energy required for oxydation
b. Assay carbond dioxide release
c. Add both substances to a culture and watch color
d. Compare growth curves in presence of each substance
Which one ot the following determinations is the most accurate determination of bacterial growth?
Log f the number of viable bacteria over time
a. Increase in size of a bacterium
b. Log of the number of viable bacteria over time
c. Dnsity of bacterial cls in suspension
d. the rate of death of bacteria
During the stationary phase of bacterial growth
The number of dividing and dying bacterial may be equal
a. The number of living bacteria doubles
b. bacteria divide every 10 minutes
c. Nutrients are increasing
d. The number od dividing and dying bacteria may equal
During the Lag phase of bacterial growth, bacterial cell mass and volume
a. Increase
b. Cell division is rapid, but constant
c. Decrease
d. The rate of cell death equals that of new cells appearing
When the number of viable bacterial cell increases 2-fold per unit time, the time is known as
The generation Time
a. The stationary Time
b. The Lag Time
c. The generation Time
d. The logarithmic time
Enzymes are catalysts because they:
Optimally orient reactants
Lower energy of activation
Bring reactants closer together
a. Optimally orient reactants
b. lower energy of activation
c. Bring ractant closer together
d. a b and c are all correct
The Phosphotranserase system of E. Coli is how this organism generates this substance in the cytoplasm
a. Glucose-6-PO4
b. Passive diffusion
c. Active transport
d. Glucose
In peptidoglycan the carbozyl group of a lactic acid moiety is covaletly bound to
a. D-alanine
b. N-acetylmuramic acid
c. L-Alanine
d. D-glutamic acid
Transpeptidase forms a peptide bond wiht an opposing strand's carboxyl group of
A terminal D-alanine
a. A terminal L-alanine
b. L-lysine
c. A terminal D-alanine
d. Diaminopimelic acid
Which pair of substances would not provide at least one substances would not provide at least one substance necessary for the following reaction
Pyruvate <-->Acetyl-CoA + CO2
NAD+ and coenzyme A
a. NADH + H+ and coenzyme A
b. NAD+ abd PO4
c. NADH+ H+ and ATP
d. NAD and coenzyme A
Fatty acid covalently attached to tehis substance in Gram-positve bacterial plasma membrane
a. Amino acids
b. Glycerol
c. N-acetylglucosamine and Nacetylmuramic acid
d. Lipid A
A multi-subunit enzyme always exhibits
non-covalentinteracting subunits
a. non-covalently interacting subunits
b. ionic bonding
c. High energy
d. Disulfide bonding
Disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane could affect
Electron transport
a. nucleotide structure
b. Hopanoid catalytic activity
c. Electron Transport
d. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis
If L-lysine is present within a peptidoglycan, the following amino acid is not present:
Diaminopimelic acid
a. L-alanine
b. D-glutamic acid
c. D-alanine
d. Diaminopimelic acid
Cytochrome proteins are an integral part of the bacterial?
Plasma membrane
a. Outer membrane
b. Plasma membrane
c. mitochondrion
d. peptiodoglycan
Electron and energy-yielding process and teh final electron acceptor is nitrate (NO3-) ion
Anaerobi respiration
a. Fermentation
b. Anaerobic respiration
c. Aerovic respiration
d. Respiration
A nucleoside is composed of:
A purine or pyrimidine base with a sugar covalently attached
a. A purine or pyrimidine base with a sugar and phosphate group(s) covalently attached
b. A purine or pyrimidine base with a phosphatate group covalently attached
c. A purine or pyrimidine base with a sugar covalently atached
d. a purine or pyrimidine base with NAD+ covalently attached
For bacteria the number 70s subuint refers to?
the catalytically active ribosome
a. mammalian ribosome
b. ribosomal RNA
c. the large ribosomal subunit
d. the catalytically active ribosome
The Transport of a substance against a concentration gradient across the plasma membrane
Active transport
a. Group translocation
b. Passive diffusion
c. Active diffusion
d. Active transport
For a hypothetical coupled two reaction (two-step) pathway (A-->B, then, B-->C) if the first reaction (A-->B) yields a delta G of +5 Kcal and the second reactoin in line (B-->C) yields a delta G of -4 kcal
Pathway works right to left C-->B B-->A
a. The pathway willnot function in either direction
b. pathway works left to right A-->B, B-->C
c. Pathway works right to left C-->B B-->A
d. delta G of reaction 1 must equal to reaction 2
Small molecule diffusion across teh outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria depends upon?
a. The outer membrane
b. Active transport
c. Porins
d. The absence of peptidoglycan
An Electron and energy-yielding process with the final electron acceptor being pyruvic acid
a. Anaerobic respiration
b. Respiration
c. Aerobic Respiration
d. Fermentation
In the coupled reaction between these two 1/2 reactions what is the value of the overall reduciton potential?

A + H+ + e- --> AH E= +.40
B + H+ + e- --> BH E= +.48
+.08 volts
a. +.08
b. -.88
c. +.10
d. +.88
In the coupled, one electron transfer between these two 1/2 reactions which substance donates electron

A + H+ + e- --> AH E=+.46
B + H+ + e- --> BH E=-.46
a. BH
b. B
c. AH
d. A
On the substances in the equation which one would be more likely to reduce NAD+ to NADH + H+

NAD+ + H+ + e- --> NADH + H+ E= -.32

A + H+ + e- --> AH E=+.46
B + H+ + e- --> BH E=-.46
a. A
b. B
c. BH
d. AH
Of the below reaction which would be the final electron acceptor in a fermentation

A + H+ + e- --> AH E=+.46
B + H+ + e- --> BH E=-.46
a. A
b. B
c. BH
d. AH
If a bacterium could catabolize ATP to ADP + P viat ATP synthase, what result may occure?
Producion of a prton motive force
a. Reversal of electron flow in the outer membrane
b. inhibition of O2 production
c. Transport of electrons out of the cell via a uniportertransport protein
d. Production of a proton motive force
How is the Proton Motie Force established during electron transport and anarobic respiration
H+ vectored outsied the cell via the electron transport system porteins
a. H+ vectored inside the cell via ATP synthase
b. H+ vectored inside the cell via the electron transport system proteins
c. H+ vectored outside the ell via cytochrome a3 oxydase
d. H+vectored outside the cell via the electron transport system proteins
The conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia is known as
nitrogen fixation
a. nitrificaiton
b. denitricication
c. nitrogen fixation
d. nitrogen cycle
The outer membrane of gram neg bacteria has two leaflets inner and outer which arespectively are
Inner phospholipid outer LPS
a. Inner=phospholipid outer LPS
b. Inner=phospholipid outer = phospholipid
c. inner=LPS outer = phospholipid
d. inner LPS outer LPS
An endospore's core may be filled with
Dipicolinic acid
a. cytoplasm
b. water
c. diffrent amino acids
d. dipicolinic acid
the alpha helix and beta pleated sheet structures are examples of protein
secondary structure
a. secondary structure
b. Primary structure
c. tertiary structure
d. quaternary structure
The enzyme that reduces nitrogen gas to ammonia
a. nitrate reductase
b. nitrogenase
c. nitrate reductase
d. ammonia oxidase
What generic enzyme could theroetically perform the following reaction

Glucose-6-p <---> glycrealdehyde-3-P + pyruvate
a. transferase
b. kinase
c. enolase
d. aldolase
The enzyme the reduces nitrogen gas to ammonia
a. nitrite reductase
b. nitrogenase
c. nitrate reductase
d. ammonium oxidase
The enzyme, triose isomerase, converts the following substance into glyceraldehyde-3-P
a. pyruvate
b. 2-phosphoglyceric acid
c. dihydroxyacetone-P
d. 3-phosdphoglyceric acid
Of the ten steps in the Embden-myerhof pathway how many involve an oxidation/reduction reaction
a. 9
b. 10
c. 1
d. 2
Of the ten steps in the embden-myerhof pathway how many involve a kinase reaction
a. 1
d. 4
c. 2
d. 6
Substate-level phosphorylation involves?
conversion of ADP + P to ATP by any means other than oxidative phosphoralation
a. converion of ADP +P to ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
b. conversion of NAD+ to NADH+H+ in the kreb's cycle
c. conversion of 2ATP to 2ADP +2Pby any means other than oxidative phosphorylation
d. Conversion of ADP + P to ATP by any means other than oxidative phosphorylation
Which enzyme co-factor is re-generated during lactive acid formation in glycolysis?
a. FAD
b. ATP
c. NAD+
d. NADH+H+
How many moles of CO2 per mole of glucose are relased in teh kreb's cycle only?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
A two-electron transfer wtih an overall deltaE = -.316v could hypothetically lead to this number of high-energy phosphate bonds
a. 0.0
b. 1.00
c. 2.00
d. 3.00
Members of bacterial populations chemically communicate via a system known as
None of the above
a. chemotaxis
b. luminescence
c. cell division
d. none of the above
Chemotaxis by bacteria does not involve?
Recodnition of concentratio ndifference alont the length of cell
a. chemical signals
b. flagellar movement
c. recogntion of concentration differences alond lenth of the cell
d. reandom walk
Which item listed could increase the proton motive force in bacteria
A higher pH within the cytoplasm, relative to the outside of the cell
a. a hydrogen ion concentration decrease external to the plasma memebrane
b. a higher pH within the cytoplasm, relative to the outside of the cell
c. an increase in antiporter of symporter activity
d. a hydrogen ion concentration increase external to the mitochondrial inner membrane
The most abundant protein within the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria - attahes OM to cell
Braun's lipoprotin
a. ATP synthase
b. Brauns's lipoprotein
c. Porin
d. lipopolysaccharide
Hopanoids are
Cholesterol-like structures
a. porins
b. Vitamin K-like structures
c. glycerol-based structures
d. cholesterol like structures
Bacterial chemotaxis requires this bacterial structure
a. Flagellum
b. cilia
c. pilus
d. fimbriae