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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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5 functions of bone
1. Support
2. Protection
3. Lever System
4. Mineral Storage
5. Blood cell formation
List 3 Functions of cartilage
1. Model for bone growth
2. Smooth Joint surfaces
3. Support
List three types of bone cells
1. Osteoblasts
2. Osteocytes
3. Osteoclasts
2 types of bone, depending on their internal structure
1. Compact (Solid matrix and cells)
2. Cancellous Bone (Spongy bone or Trabeculae)
2 Types of Bone Ossification
Intramembranous and Endochondrial
Intramembranous
- Bone ossification that occurs WITHIN connective tissue membranes
- Mostly in flat bones of the Skull
Endochondrial
- Ossification prcess that produces most of the skeletal system
Fibrous
2 bones united by fibrous tissue
- little or no movement
Cartilaginous
2 bones united by cartilage
- slight movement
Synovial
freely moving joints
- Contain fluid in a cavity surrounding the ends of bones
How a bone grows in Diameter
- apposition of new bone matrix on an old bone surface beneath the periosteum
How a bone grows in Length
- Cartilage growth at the epiphyseal plate followed by ossification of the cartilage
2 bones of the Pectoral Girdle
1. Clavicle
2. Scapula
2 bones of the Pelvic Girdle
1. Sacrum
2. Coxa
List three major classes of joints
1. Fibrous
2. Cartilaginous
3. Synovial
5 Types of vertebrae
1. Cervical
2. Thoracic
3. Lumbar
4. Sacrum
5. Coccyx
Functions of Cartilage
1. Model for bone growth
2. Smooth joint surfaces
3. Support
List three types of bone cells
1. Osteoblasts
2. Osteocytes
3. Osteoclasts
Six types of synovial Joints
1. Ellipsoid
2. Plane
3. Saddle
4. Hinge
5. Pivot
6. Ball and Socket
A break in the shaft of a bone is a break in the...
Diaphysis
Periosteum and Hyaline Cartilage
Connective tissue structures vocer the surface of mature bones
Diaphysis
Primary ossification centers of a long bone
As a long bone increases in diameter the medullary cavity
Increases in size.
Chondrocytes
During bone growth at the epiphyseal plate...
increase in number, hypertrophy, and die
Function of osteoclasts is to
break down bones
Healing of bone fractures
1. Blood clot formation around break
2. Callus is formed
3. Cancellous bone is formed in the callus
4. The callus may eventually disappear
Contains a paranasal sinus
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Frontal
Maxilla
The squamous suture joins the
Parietal and temporal bones
The weight-bearing portion of a vertebrea is the
body
Transverse foramina are found only in
Cervical vertebrae
Charactersitcs of Synocial joints
~Articular surfaces covered with cartilage
~ Joint capsule
~ Synovial membrane
~ Synovial Fluid
Seven Functions of the muscular system
1. Body movement
2. Posture maintenance
3. Respiration
4. Production of body heat
5. Communication
6. Constructionn of organs and vessels
7. Blood circulation (heat beat)
4 functional characteristics of muscle
Contracility, elasticity, excitablility, and extensibility
3 Connective tissue structures associated with skeletal muscle
1. Epimysium (Fasica) Surrounds whole muscle
2. Perimysium - Surrounds muscle fasciculi
3. Endomysium - surrounds muscle fibers
2 types of membrane potentials
Resting membrane potential and action potential
I band
Only actin myofilaments
A band
Actin and myosin myofilaments overlap
H band
ONLY myosin myofilaments
Myofibril
Thread-like structures ends of the muscle fiber
Actin Myofilament
Thin myofilaments - two minute strands pearls twisted together
Myosin Myofilament
Thick myofilaments
Neuromuscular Junction
Point where the axon of a motor neuron joins with a skeletal muscle fiber... synapse
Acetylchonline
Neurotransmitter released from synaptic vesicles of a presynaptic terminal
Acetylcholinesterase
Enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
Muscle twitch
Contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes an action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
Lag Phase
Time between applicaton of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction
Contraction Phase
Time during with a muscle shortens
Isometric
tension increases during the contraction process... LENGTH DOES NOT CHANGE

equal distance
Isotonic
The length of the muscle decreases

Movements of arms or fingers
Concentric
Isotonic contraction in which muscle tension increases as the muscle shortens.
Eccentric
Isotonic contractions in which tension is maintained as athe muscle lengthens

(letting a heavy weight down slowly)
Aerobic
Respiration that requires Oxygen
- Type of respiration that produces the most ATP molecules for each glucose molecule used
Anaerobic Respiration
Respiration used during short periods of intense excersise

- Produces lactic acid
Slow twitch muscle fibers
Resistant to fatigue
- Richer blood supply and contains myoglobin; temporarily stores oxygen
Fast-Twitch muscle fibers
Predominant muscle fiber in the upper limbs
- Intense excercise resulting in anaerobic repsiraiton has the greatest effect on this type of muscle fiber
Flexion
Moving body in the anterior or ventral to the coronal plane
Extension
Moving body in a posterior or ddorsal to the coronal plane
Plantar flexion
Standing on toes
Dorsiflexion
Walking on heels
Abduction
Moving away from median or midsagittal plane
Adduction
moving toward the median plane
Pronation
rotation of the forarm, palm down
Supination
Rotation of the forearm, palm up
Eversion
Turning the foot plantar surface faces laterally
Inversion
Turning the foot plantar surface faces medially
Protraction
Movement that the mandible glides anteriorly