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80 Cards in this Set

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Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass
Amount of matter in an object
Weight
Gravitational force acting on an object of given mass.
Kilogram
International unit for mass
Element
Simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties.
Atom
Smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element.
Neutron
Subatomic particle with NO electrical charge.
Electron
Subatomic particle with a NEGATIVE charge; moves around necleus
Electron Cloud
Region where electrons are most likely to be found.
Ions
Atoms that have lost or gained electrons
Ionic Bonding
occurs mwhen oppositely charged ions are ATTRACTED to each other.
Covalent Bonding
when two atoms SHARE one or more pairs of electrons.
Double Covalent Bond
When two pairs of electrons are shared
Polar Covalent Bond
When unequal sharing of electrons occurs.
Hydrogen Bonds
When molecules with polar covalent bonds are weakly attracted to ions or other polar covalent molecules.
Molecule
Forms when 2+ atoms chemically combine to form a structure that behaves as an independent unit.
Compound
Is a substance composed of two or more DIFFERENT types of atoms that are chemically combined
Dissociate
When ionic compounds dissolve in water, their ions separate from each other.
Reactant
Atoms or molecules BEFORE the chemical reation.
Products
Result FROM the chemical reaction.
Synthesis Reaction
When 2 or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex product.
Decomposition Reaction
Reactants are broken down into smaller, less complex products.
Decompose, breaking down
Exchange Reaction
COMBINATION of a decomposition and a Synthesis reaction.
Reversible Reaction
A reaction that can proceed from reactants to products and products to reactants.
REVERSE
Equilibrium
When the rate of product formation and reaction formation are EQUAL
Potential Energy
Energy exists in chemical bonds
Released
Products of a chemical reaction contain less energy than the reactants
Heat
Most of the energy released from a chemical reaction
ATP
An energy source; Almost all of the chemical reactions of the cell that require energy is used
Catalyst
is a substance that increases the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds without itself being permanently changed or depleted.
Enzyme
Protein molecules in the body that act as catalysts.
Acids
Substances that are proton H+ donors.
Bases
Substance that accept protons.
Salts
Molecules consisting of a positive ion other than hydrogen and a negative ion other than hydroxide
Buffers
Chemicals that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added to a solution.
Neutral Solution
pH of 7
Acidic Soultion
pH less than 7
Alkaline Solution
Greater concentration of hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.
Oxygen
Comprises about 21% of the gas in the atmosphere; required for the final step of extracting energy from food molecules.
Carbon Dioxide
Produced when organic molecules such as glucose are metabolized in the cells of the body; toxic if it is allowed to accumulate within cells.
Heat
Water can absorb large amounts of (1) and remain at a stable temerpature.
Lubricant
Water also acts as an effective (2) ex. tears protects the surface of the eye
Digestion
Water is necessary in many chemical reactions, such as the (3) of food.
Transport
Water is necessary for (4) of nutrients, gases, and waste products in the body.
Dissociate
When ionic substances dissolve in water, the positive and negative ions separate. Allows the ions to stay in solution.
Organic
Include Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Inorganic
All molecules that do NOT contain CARBON (except carbon dioxide and monoxide)
Lipids
Fats, phospholipids, and steroids
Glycerol and Fatty acids
Building blocks of fats
Triacylglycerol
Most common type of fat molecule, with three fatty acids bound to a glycerol molecule.
Saturated
Fatty acid that contains only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms
Unsaturated
Believed to be the best type of fat in the diet.
Amino Acids
(20 types) Building blocks of protein
Essential
Humans can synthesize 12 of these from simple organic molecules, but the remaining 8.
Shape
The ability of proteins to perform their functions depends on their (_)
Denaturation
Occurs when hydrogen bonds that maintain a protein's shape are broken, then becomes nonfunctional
Enzymes
proteins that regulate the rate of chemical reactions.
Structural Proteins
Provide the framework for many of the body's tissues
Activation Energy
Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the (8) necessary to start a chemical reaction
Lock and Key Model
the shape of enzymes and reactantsallows them to ind together easily.
Nucleotide
Building block for nucleic acids; contains a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group
DNA
DEOXYRIBOSE; Nucleotides forms a double helix. Genetic material of the cell; controls cell activities
Chromatin
DNA molecules associated with protein
Chromosome
Formed when chromatin condenses during cell division.
RNA
Single strand of necleotides that contains the sugar ribose.
Heat
Water can absorb large amounts of (1) and remain at a stable temerpature.
Lubricant
Water also acts as an effective (2) ex. tears protects the surface of the eye
Digestion
Water is necessary in many chemical reactions, such as the (3) of food.
Transport
Water is necessary for (4) of nutrients, gases, and waste products in the body.
Dissociate
When ionic substances dissolve in water, the positive and negative ions separate. Allows the ions to stay in solution.
Organic
Include Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Inorganic
All molecules that do NOT contain CARBON (except carbon dioxide and monoxide)
Lipids
Fats, phospholipids, and steroids
Glycerol and Fatty acids
Building blocks of fats
Triacylglycerol
Most common type of fat molecule, with three fatty acids bound to a glycerol molecule.
Saturated
Fatty acid that contains only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms
Unsaturated
Believed to be the best type of fat in the diet.
Amino Acids
(20 types) Building blocks of protein
Essential
Humans can synthesize 12 of these from simple organic molecules, but the remaining 8.
Shape
The ability of proteins to perform their functions depends on their (_)