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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name of the writer of the earliest textbook of anatomy
Andreas Vesalius
Name of the discoverer of the blood circulation
William Harvey
anatomy
form/structure of the body
physiology
function of the body
10 major characterstics of higher life forms
1. move
2. respond/react to stimuli
3. grow
4. reproduce
5. respire
6. digest food
7. absorb products of digestion
8. circulate blood
9. assimilate food products
10. excrete unwanted or harmful materials
4 most important needs of humans
1. food
2. water
3. oxygen
4. warmth (external/self gen)
6 factors under hoeostatic control
1. body temp
2. oxygen level in blood and tissues
3. acidity/alkalinity
4. salt content
5. glucose level in the blood
6. metabolic waste product levels
5 levels of organization in the body
1. Molecules
2. Cells
3. Tissues
4. Organs
5. Systems
Body Covering Organ System
integumentary system
Support, protection, and movement Organ System
skeletal, muscular
Integration and coordination organ systems
nervous, endocrine
Processing and Transporting organ system
digestive, respiratory, circulatory, lymphatic, urinary
reproduction organ system
reproductive
Superior
towards the head
inferior
away from the head
anterior
toward the front
posterior
toward the back
medial
towards the midline
lateral
towards the side
proximal
toward the main mass of the body
distal
away from the main mass of the body
superficial
toward the surface of the body
deep
away from the surface of the body
central
at the center
peripheral
around the outside
Sagittal Cut
divides the body into left and right sections
Transverse Cut
any cut that divides the body into upper and lower segments
Coronal Cut
a cut that divides the body into front and back portions
abdominal
stomach area
acromial
point of the shoulder
brachial
upper arm
antebrachial
forearm
cubital
elbow
antecubital
space in front of the elbow
axillary
armpit
buccal
cheek
carpal
wrist
cephalic
pertaining to the head
cervical
neck
costal
ribs
digital
finger
frontal
forehead
genital
mmhmm
lumbar
lower back
mammary
breast
nasal
nose
oral
mouth
pelvic
pelvic bone area
pectorial
chest
pedal
foot
plantar
sole of foot
umbilical
navel
vertebral
spinal column
Invasive techniques
the body is invaded or penetrated in some way
non-invasive
does not invade/penetrate the body
CAT, PET, MRI
Cpmputed axial tomography, positron-emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging
Matter
stuff; occupies space includes all solids, liquids, and gases
Atoms
the composition of elements
ions
when an atom's protons are not equal to its electrons
cation
positively charged ion
anions
negatively charged ions
atomic number
number of protons in the atom
atomic weight
number of neutrons/protons determines the weight
isotope
varieties of an element with the same number of protons but differnt numbers of neutrons
3 major Bonds
covalent, ionic, hydrogen
covalent bond
atoms share electrons
ionic bond
atoms donate/recive electrons
hydrogen
weak, between hydrogen,oxygen, and nitrogen for DNA
molecules
atoms bonded together
4 Chemical Reactions
synthesis, dissociation, exchange, and reversible
acids
release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
bases
combine with hydrogen ions in solution
salts
when an acid and base react
electrolytes
substances that are bonded together by electrovalent bonds dissociate into their constituent ions when dissolved in water
pH
measure of acidity of alkalinity of a solution based on the linear scale from 0-14
4 groups of organic substances
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids/nucleotides
carbohydrate
always contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharides
building blocks of complex CHO molecules. (glucose)
disaccharides
two monosaccharides covalently bonded together (lactose)
polysaccharides
large number of monosaccharides strung together in branched chains
lipid
not soluble in water, only soluble in chloroform and methanol
triglycerides
fats, can be burned by cells to produce energy; one molecule of one molecule glycerol bound to three fatty acid molecules
phospholipids
one molecule of gylcerol covalently bound to tow fatty acid molecules and one phosphate group
steroids
cholesterol, which forms a lot of hormones